A Mathematics timeline

Prehistory

The first tangible signs of accounting. appear in forms of carved notches.

paleo

Antiquity

  • Tablet103500 BC –  The mathematics are becoming essential to the administration of the first cities (Ur, Akkad, …) of Mesopotamia. The use of clay tablets are spreading to burn compatibility cuneiform (wedge-shaped). We discover the number Pi and gives a first approximation.
  • 3000 BC – Egyptians symbolize the numbers under the form of hieroglyphics. They refine the value of Pi.

root 2

  • 1800 BC : In Babylon (south of the current Baghdad), surveyors use math to build monuments. On a tablet, is plotted the first diagonal of the square and on a second resolution of the Pythagorean theorem.
  • 700 BC – . Mathematics move to Greece. Thales of Miletus measures the height of the pyramids with the theorem that establishes and which bear his name.
  • 500 BC – Plato ad topology (the study places or forms) with his treatise on 5 polyhedra.5 poly
  • pythagore500 BC: Pythagoras shows (geometrically) the theorem discovered by the Sumerians. The Pythagoreans are horrified by discovering the existence of irrational numbers, such as the length of the diagonal of a square of side 1 which is √2, a number with infinite decimal that can put in the form of a fraction.
  • 450 BC – Phidias designed the Parthenon using the golden ratio Φ.
  • 400 BC – Eudoxus of Cnidus offers the so-called « of exhaustion » polygonto calculate the area of a circle. This method foreshadows the calculus.
  • 400 BC – the side of the Indus invented the zero.
  • 350 BC – Euclid wrote his Elements in which he laid the 5 axioms of geometry called « Euclidean ».
  • 250 BC. Apollonius of Perge defines the parabola, ellipse and hyperbole as conic sections.

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Conic sections
  • Ptolemy
    Trigonometry and astronomy

    200 BC – Archimedes proposes a calculation method that will give birth to the logarithmic calculation over a thousand years later. It also specifies the value of Pi.

  • 200 BC – Alexandria Diophantus is interested in equations integers. Ferma, Euler Gauss read extensively Diophantus.
  • 200 BC – Eratosthenes calculated the earth’s meridian.
  • 190 BC – Hipparchus of Nicea develops trigonometry for purposes of astronomy.

Timeline of mathematics

Middle age

The Middle Ages is a dark period in Europe for science in general and mathematics in particular. Religion has become the only field « investigation. The debates are essentially theological. Greek acquired are lost. But not for everyone. Arabs and Indians will happily get captured.the Lord's Supper

  • 800 AD – Brahma Gupta theorizes the zero as the result of the subtraction of a number by itself.
  • 850 AD – mathematics – Diophantus the Greek had set up the equations ^ still bear his name. But this is an Indian based in Baghdad, Al-Kwarizmi, which introduced into the equations, an unknown: the birth of algebra. He also developed trigonometry.
geocentrism
Geocentric Ptolemaic
  • 1200 AD – zero and Arabic-Indic digits finally penetrate Europe through Fibonacci Leonardo of Pisa said. He is credited as the famous suite that bears his name.
  • 1200 AD -Four centuries before Descartes, Oresme laying the foundations of the Cartesian coordinate system.
  • 1596 – Kepler incurred the wrath of the Holy Inquisition, arguing that the planets describe ellipses which he calculates trajectories.
  • 1540 – François Viète proposed to note the unknown x in the algebraic equations.
  • 1550 – John Nappier sets up the logarithmic calculation. The natural logarithm function will be named in his honor, the natural logarithm.
  • 1581 – Rafaello Bombelli invented imaginary numbers to solve a cubic equation.
  • 1600 – Galileo supported Copernicus’s theories on heliocentrism who want the sun is the center of the universe. It also shows that a projectile describes a parabola.

Timeline of mathematics

The lights

  • 1629 – Albert Girard gives the basics of the fundamental theorem of algebra (an equation of nth-counter at most n solutions).descartes1
  • 1630 – Rene Descartes introduced the Cartesian coordinate system that solves problems via geometric algebra. An equation y = ax + b can thus be represented as a line. His invention later gave birth to the functions and analysis.
  • 1650 – Pierre de Fermat establishes the method of tangents which is the ancestor of the calculus of Leibniz and Newton.
  • 1650 – Pierre de Fermat laid the foundations of probabilistic calculation.
  • 1650 – St. Gregory Vincent shows that the area under the hyperbola follows a logarithmic function.
  • 1664 – Nicolas MERCATOR shows that the functions can be expressed in the form of infinite series.
  • 1680 – Newton developed calculus.
    newton
    Isaac NEWTON

    1685 – Jean Bernoulli laid the foundations of the exponential function e (x), that is to say the reciprocal of the natural logarithm function or Napierian ln (x). It shows that the sequence Σ (1 + 1 / n) converges to e, the base of the natural logarithm.

  • 1690 – Leibniz also develops its side calculus. His notation (dx) prevail over that of Newton.
  • 1712 – Brook Taylor shows that the functions can be expressed in the form of special series: Taylor series.
  • 1730 – Euler poses scoring
    • f (x) for functions,
    • e for exponential
    • i for imaginary numbers invented by Bombelli

He monster 1 + 1/4 + 1/9 + 1/16 + .. 1 / n ² = Π / 6 and establishes a relationship between the primes and ordinary numbers. It establishes laplus beautiful expression of all temples:

e – 1 = 0

Timeline of mathematics

Mathematics will never be completed.

  • 1800 – Pierre Simon Laplace simplifies the process of derivation
  • geometrienoneuclidienne1830 – Gauss
    • laying the foundations of non-Euclidean geometry
    • gives a method to calculate the density of primes;
    • demonstrates the fundamental theorem of arithmetic (any number breaks down ways single prime factor).
  • 1830 – Augustin Cauchy develops complex analysis
  • 1880 – Cantor sets set theory and works on infinite
  • 1905 – Poincaré develops topology initiated by Plato
  • 1933 – Kurt Gödel shows that all is not demonstrable
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