Here is the book that most original Chavonnes Publishing had the opportunity to read (and they have read a lot). The work of Gilles Vervisch is particularly indicated for fans of the saga of LUCAS. They finally discover its hidden face and understand what is actually his dark side …
Skeptical at first, I realized the obvious: this book is like philosophy. This material, too often taught arid way, becomes, in the writings of Gilles VERVISCH, fluid, accessible, intriguing and obvious … No more incomprehensible jargon Teachers, the author uses simple words to immerse ourselves in a galaxy far, far away.
Georges LUCAS – philosopher
I thought wrongly that our friend George Lucas was content to write beautiful intergalactic stories where it long ago, in a galaxy far, far away, reigned prophecies, politicians, princesses and wise, where the very high technology skirted men sand riding dinosaurs.
I learned with the author that there was a depth to the director in writing previously unsuspected, a philosophical culture that draws its source to the confines of ancient Greece, the side of Hinduism, Buddhism , Manichaeism, the stoicism …
The struggle between good and evil: the essence of the saga
In Star Wars, it is easy to distinguish
- the bad guys (still very bad, often dressed in black, scarred, arrogant, ruthless ( « Apology accepted Captain Needa »), seeking war, power, power;
- the kind (always very friendly, dressed in bright, blond and innocent, concerned about their future, preferring peace) and end up winning.
This scheme, which is found almost everywhere in Hollywood movies (Snow White with Marvel through Die Hard or Rocky) comes from Mani , a Christian prophet who lived in the third century in Persia and who preached a very particular vision of Christianity: Manichaeism.
The ubiquitous Manichaeism in Star Wars
Mani, like others before him, was astonished to see that the world, designed and built by the Good God almighty, was full of evil, wars, diseases, were then suffering the daily lives of men: yet God ( the incarnate well) could not be held responsible.
Epicurus in the third century BC, had already reached the same conclusion: If God is so good and all-powerful evil should not exist. This led the Greek philosopher in the following reasoning:
- Either God is not all powerful (and then it is not God);
- Either God wanted evil (and then it is not good which is not possible).
Epicurus then finds the existence of a second God to the origin of evil. But such reasoning was not possible at the time of Mani where monotheistic assume the existence of a second God was leading you straight to the woodshed.
Yet Mani crosses the threshold forbidden: a second evil god is the cause of evil. This dualism was then taken by the Cathars in particular. Mani cut up the world in two:
- the world of light, associated Well, the world of the spirit of the divine eternity (the side of the Jedi finally Force);
- the world of darkness, associated with evil, the world earthly, material, mortal body, a world dominated by Satan (the dark side of the Force, of course, the Sith replacing Satan).
Mani explained that one day the Dark took precedence over Light (Black War in Star Wars)as at the end of Episode III (Revenge of the Sith). Since, according to Mani (and also to Christianity in general), the man consists of two parts:
- his carnal and mortal shell (which belongs to the darkness or the dark side of the force;
- his spirit that belongs to the Light and is eternal (Obi Wan, at the end of Episode IV, by his sacrifice frees his mind from the mortal coil and joined the world of light (Paradise) to communicate with Luke ).
A condition, however, is required to access the world of Light; we must live as much as possible, by detaching the material world, as does Obi Wan on Tatooine or Yoda on Dagobah. A parallel with Buddhism which advocates a complete detachment from the material world to reach Nirvana is inevitable here
Death is a natural part of life, Rejoice for those around you who return to the Force. Nor cry nor regret you owe. Attachment leads to jealousy, in the shadow of lust it grows. Yoda master.
This separation of the world into two had already been mentioned by Plato (the world of ideas and the material world) who had laid the foundations of Christianity.
There is much talk of destiny among Jedi. Anakine is the one who will destroy the Emperor (and knows it), it is his destiny ..
Luke, join me, it is your destiny. Dark-Vador – Epidose V
Anakine is victim of events. He did not choose to be born with a high midi-chlorians nor meet Qui-Gon Jinn, or fall in love with Padmé, nor lost his mother suffered men sand … Next only his fate, he tomb of the dark side. Gilles VERVISH raises the killer question: is it finally so bad because it « suffers » her destiny and the « pilot » ever? That is deeply Stoic: there is no good or evil, only a destiny that must be accepted, as painful as it is. Our only freedom is to accept (and love) our destiny (it is also the Amor Fati (love of fate) of Nietzsche ).
« Do not expect that events happen as you wish; decides to try what happens and you will be happy » Epictetus
« My formula for what’s great in man is AMOR FATI: to want nothing other than what is, neither ahead nor behind, nor ever and ever. Do not be content to bear the inevitable, let alone hide it – all idealism is a way to lie before the inevitable – but love it. » Nietzsche, Ecce homo
Vader is not bad. He has just been unlucky.
When Palpatine Anakine invited to join the theater (Episode III), is of course to submit philosophy dark side.
Palpatine explained that the concept of good and evil, as presented by the Jedi is erroneous or incomplete any case: the good and the bad are concepts that depend on « our point of view, » he said. If the wolf eats the lamb, it is not as « evil » but simply because he is carnivorous.Morality has nothing to do in there: We find that Nietzsche wrote in « beyond good and evil. «
There ‘s no moral phenomenon at all, but only a moral interpretation of phenomena.Nietzsche
Nature is cruel, therefore we have the right to be later said Hitler.
Another important concept introduced by Nietzsche ‘s will to power: everything tends to be more power, like the tree that seeks the light to thrive.
Among men, some are animated:
- of active forces ; they are able to deploy their strength without overwriting other; The course Jedi in this category: Yoda says himself: « No war no one becomes great »;
- of reactive forces , like ivy that sucks the sap of its host; they need to deny other forces to flourish, destroy, enslave. The Sith are animated such forces: the will to power of the Emperor is through the destruction of what exists, including the Jedi.
Yoda, meanwhile, evokes a future difficult to predict as« Difficult to see. Always in motion is the future. « .
We would therefore be « master of our destiny. » Sarte inExistentialism and Humanism , says the same thing: he criticizes those who say « made for » waiter as he observes the terrace. For Sartre, believe « intended » is to show « bad faith ». because we still have the choice of doing good and evil. Obi Wan and Yoda and Luke teach the way forward.In the Yoda episode goes to test Luke; » Your weapon will you will not need it … you’ll find that you will bring it. « In short, you have the choice to choose good or evil .
This freedom granted to man arranged from St. Augustine also good church, because if we are free to do evil then we can be judged!
The strength: a God to Spinoza
Spinoza confused God and nature:
« Deus sive natura » (God, ie nature). Spinoza
» By God I mean a being absolutely infinite, that is to say a substance consisting of infinite attributes, each of which expresses eternal and infinite essence » Spinoza
For Spinoza, God is a disembodied power, present in living beings but also in the rocks or water, far from the icon of the bearded old lining the walls of churches. God (or nature) fills the entire universe. Since the force finally allowing Luke to raise his ship.
Hobbes described the natural man living in a lawless world: chaos reigns. The only law that has course is the law of the strongest. No one is safe, including the stronger because it can be threatened by even stronger or by a combination of weaker. In this world, we can not do the project, because tomorrow everything can crumble: Uncle Owen was murdered and, as the mother of Anakine and men sands, the Jawas …
Even Jabba the Hut who thought fort was victim of the implacable law.
The remedy proposed by Rousseau was the Social Contract : each waives its nuisance value in exchange for the security offered by the group, all framed by the law which entrusts Police forces monopoly of voluntary violence.
A mind-body duality
Darth Vader-seems locked in his armor, like the mind (for example Descartes) is enclosed in the physical body. Only death will free the mind from the pulpit in prison. He can then join the world of ideas (Plato) or paradise (Christians) or Nirvana (Buddhist). When Luke removes the helmet of Darth Vader-, one is freed from evil, but dies away in a halo of light, a kind of transcendent world, a world of the mind, Spinoza’s God: it is integrated with Universe and these senses does not disappear.
An easement Volunteer
As written by Gilles VERVISH, it should honor the episodes I, II, III maligned because of the character of Jar-Jar and Bins or poor performance of the actor playing Anakine. These episodes I, II and II are indeed extremely worked from the perspective of political intrigue.
The old republic functioned much like Plato’s Republic which was not democratic (Plato, democracy is the worst system because it transferred power to the « mob » ignorant). Plato, the organization of the city should be left to philosophers or a Jedi council involved in all major decisions.
Like Caesar became the applause of senators, lifetime dictator of the old imperial Rome, it was also the cheers of the Senate that Palpatine buried the former Republic invoking a major argument restore security.
La Boetie, in his famous speech on voluntary waitress , was surprised to see millions of people (the people) serve one (King) for centuries. He explained this by the voluntary servitude accustomed or custom; the serf had known nothing like the prisoner of Plato’s cave. King also (or Lord) provided security serf. That’s why the Empire seeks from Episode IV to erase all traces of the old republic for people to forget that one day they were free!
Highly Episode VIII
Here is a taste of that this book editions Chavonnes advise you.