Montaigne About cannibals

Montaigne was born into a noble Catholic family in Gascony in 1533, during the reign of Francis I, while the kingdom of France knew the first soubressauts of religious wars. The Lutheran Reformation (Protestantism) was beginning to threaten the royal authority built on Catholic foundations. 1520 saw the first persecution of Huguenots (Protestants), which degenerated into civil war during the second half of the sixteenth until its peak in 1572 during the slaughter of St. Bartholomew desired by Queen mother Catherine Medicis.

Montaigne was the man of one book (but what a book!): The Essays. He began his writing in 1571, following his voluntary retirement from public life (he was mayor of Bordeaux). He will it correct until his death in 1592.

Montaigne of cannibals

Montaigne was too long considered as a writer. Montaigne deserves certainly the clothes of the philosopher! Seeking over its pages the way to the good life (hedonism), he was successively:

  • Stoic (quoting Seneca , who sought inner peace by freeing material goods);
  • skeptical (by becoming aware of the limits of human knowledge, constantly disturbed by the senses, but which allows, at the same time, infinite development of the mind);
  • Epicurean (citing Lucretius , who merely simple by becoming aware of « smallness » of man facing infinity);

He dared to challenge the then undisputed dogmas of the Catholic Church and was, in this sense, a distant precursor of the Enlightenment. He was also interested in public morality.

Montaigne: an honest-man

Montaigne wanted to be an honest man. He hated hypocrisy. The guru of the Kings was then Machiavelli who, in The Prince, had proposed to the Monarchs (Italian) to last in politics to promote lies, cowardice, pretense. For Machiavelli , these tools should be used extensively to guarantee state stability. Everything was justifiable in the name of « reasons of state », including crime. Montaigne frankly scored in the opposite side, putting honesty above all. In tests, it has sought to paint himself be a commonplace (in his words) and, through him, to paint humanity. ESSAYS therefore have a universal dimension.

Image search result for "New World Columbus"
Christohe Columbus offering the New World to the three Catholics by Velasquez

Montaigne of cannibals

Historical context

Montaigne wrote The cannibals in 1595. France was barely fell religious wars that had bloodied the Kingdom. We celebrated the 20th anniversary of St. Bartholomew: thousands of Huguenots (Protestants) were thrown into the Seine by the Guise (Catholic leaders) and their accomplices. Henry of Navarre, one of the few survivors of the massacre of the Huguenots, had given up Protestantism (in Montaigne’s advice) to become the good King Henry IV of France. By signing the Edict of Nantes (1598), he offered France a relative religious peace, until the revocation of the Edict by Louis XIV. Curiously, Montaigne does not address the issue of religious wars in his work. Instead, he engages in a plea for tolerance and announcing the works of Enlightenment (Short Treatise on Tolerance Voltaire particular).

Religion and Montaigne

Montaigne respected the Catholic world he came from. Besides, he submitted ESSAYS to the censorship of the Church. But he was more Catholic by loyalty to his country than religious conviction. In Islam, he would surely have been a Muslim. He just kept into  faith and religion, what seemed right: charity, justice as social glue . He was, in the vocabulary of today, a moderate. He refused Christian asceticism: the renunciation of life, which pushed dolorism search the believer pain to imitate the passion of Christ, inviting him to postpone his life today be a living dead (an acète ) in the mad hope of tomorrow undead (in paradise).

The alliance between the nobility and the Catholic Church

The alliance between the sword (Nobles) and the Churc has never been as powerful: the Noble ensured the legitimacy of the Church (and vice versa), with the goal of mutual benefit, except the poor people. To ensure the sustainability of such a system, the Church tried to fight against all forms of heresy, which would to challenge his authority, and this playing with ability on:

  • fear of the last punishment, only the priest could relieve (harming to the king by divine right was hurting God);
  • ignorance : Church kept the people in a state of profound ignorance to be the only credible interface with God (only priests read Latin);
  • Confession (a kind of intelligence service extremely powerful general);
  • custom ( La Boétie, in his wonderful book « From voluntary servitude.  » showed that the serf « get used » for generations, in bondage.

Montaigne of cannibals

Reading report – summary and comments

An excerpt to begin

But I think, back to my point, there is nothing barbarous and savage in this nation to what was reported to me; except that each man calls barbarism whatever is not of its use; as real, it seems that we have another sight of truth and reason than the example and idea of ​​the opinions and customs of the countries where we operate.

There is always the perfect religion, the perfect font, perfect and accomplished usage of all things. They are wild, as we call wild fruits that nature, self and its regular progress, has produced where, in truth, these are the ones we have altered our artifice and diverted from the common order, we should rather call wild.

As these are vivid and vigorous real and useful and natural virtues and properties, which we have bastardized in these, and have only accommodated the pleasure of our corrupted taste. If however, the same flavor and delicacy is our excellent taste, in emulation of us, in various fruits of these countries then without culture. It is not reasonable that art wins the point of honor over our great and powerful mother Nature. We reloaded as the beauty and richness of her works by our inventions, we have all the stifled. If is it that wherever her purity shines, it is wonderful to shame our vain and frivolous companies […] Montaigne, Essays, I, 31. cannibals.

Montaigne of cannibals

The new World

Recently, the « new world » was (re) discovered by Christopher Columbus (1492). The European, blinded by religion, discovered with amazement that God created other creatures « in human form. » Separate the known world by an ocean, these creatures were clearly not descend from Adam and Eve (we did not know that humanity had a common root in Africa and that the Indians were far distant descendants of Adam and Eve (or rather Lucy), passed in America by the Bering Strait). Had God created two kinds of men? The European man he was no longer at the World Center, the only creation of the Almighty? Already in 1543 Copernicus (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres or heavenly spheres) had sought to dislodge the land of the Universe center. The alert had been hot for the Church which held the geocentric Ptolemaic (and before him Plato, Timaeus ) a divine creation (man) could not decently be placed in the periphery. Giordano Bruno , in 1600, went even further by suggesting the existence of other worlds and even alien creatures. He finished in the redemptive flames of pyres of Rome. With the discovery of the New World, it was a whole section of the Bible, in a moment wavered: the Church’s authority was likely to be seriously undermined.

The Controversy of Valladolid

The quake dogmatic Earth in 1550 experienced its epicenter in Valladolid, in the eponymous Controversy initiated by Charles Quint, the Controversy of Valladolid took the form of a heated debate between the two religious professionals that were:

  • Dominican Bartolomé de Las Casas , on one hand, and
  • the theologian Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda , on the other.
Charles V betrayed by his body - La Libre
Charles Quint

Men or beasts

Charles V would decide the question: could we consider the creatures of the New World as men? And therefore we must stop the inhuman treatment by the Conquistadors to the natives.

« The voice of one crying in the wilderness of this island (New World), it’s me, and I tell you that you are all in mortal sin because of your cruelty to an innocent race. »

But these « savages » who practiced cannibalism and human sacrifice, could, for others, be classified as animals, without souls, which had the advantage of justifying the abuse against them, including the slavery, removing any sinful dimension. The debate raged when Montaigne decided to get an idea by itself going to meet them at the port of Rouen. He showed an approach Cartesian , refusing to accept any arguments made on the subject reported by travelers and commented on by the thinkers of the Church. Cannibal is the minutes of the meeting.

Montaigne of cannibals

Montaigne precursor of Lights

The question arises Montaigne is deceptively simple: it is the wild the one it is? The title of the essay seems to settle the question: it names the Indians « cannibals. » And no sane person could assimilate cannibals to anything but wild. The question seems to heard. Yet Montaigne will show us otherwise.

Montaigne of cannibals

Montaigne’s arguments

« They are wild, as we call » wild « fruits that nature, self and its regular progress, has produced ». Essays – The Cannibals – Montaigne.

Montaigne shows that the term « wild », including in our vocabulary, not necessarily a pejorative connotation in his example, wild fruit would even « superior » to the fruit grown, as it is created by nature, by our Creator is good by definition. Thus, for Montaigne, is the wild in the European wild fruit that is grown fruit. It seems to fit into the Greek wisdom for the return to nature (Democritus Epicureanism, Stoicism of Seneca and Marcus Aurelius Diogenes); wisdoms that encouraged to move away from the city to rediscover the taste of simple, natural, rejecting superfluous, fleeing the artificial, keeping only the just-necessary, cultivating a sober happiness.

« We have so recharged the beauty and richness of her works by our inventions, we have all drowned. » Essays – The Cannibals – Montaigne.

There are similarities with the work of Diderot , to which only nature can be a source of morality. The man then that the damage. Diderot shows, for example, in a plea for the « natural law », that the institution of marriage (we created) is against nature and the bane of our civilization:

« Nothing, indeed, it seems you more foolish than a precept which prohibits the change in us; which controls a consistency that there can be, and that violates the freedom of the male and the female, by chaining forever to each other; a loyalty that most capricious terminal of enjoyment to the same individual; an oath of immutability of two beings of flesh, in the face of a sky that is not even a moment, in the caverns that threaten ruin; at the bottom of a rock falling powder; at the foot of a shaft gerce; on a rock that shakes? Believe me, you made the man’s condition worse than that of animals. « Diderot – Supplement to travel Bougainvillea.

Montaigne of cannibals

Montaigne an environmentalist?

We find now this return to « authentic » in political ecology. While Descartes wanted man Dominate nature, environmentalist morality considers that any human invention is a priori bad (GMOs car assisted reproduction, cloning, abortion) and that only nature is defensible (Bio stands for « good « in their vocabulary). He joins in this regard, the believers who also advocate a strict adherence to natural law .

Montaigne of cannibals

Our poor reading grid

Montaigne denounces our European grid biased reading our experience, our culture, our history, our habits: we believe that we do not know on the basis of our European criteria are, for Montaigne, at least, narrow. We consider the behavior of wild with a Bible in hand! Of course, Native Americans have different codes, a moral good to them after their way of life, which may in no case enter our Christian boxes. But that does not make wild but only different beings. Montesquieu will do the reverse exercise in the Persian letters s where it will show that our society, our customs, seen through the eyes of a stranger may seem equally ridiculous: Persian is surprised as well that we have put a 12 year old (Louis XIV) on the throne of France, only on the basis of heredity, without considering its competence to manage a kingdom. The French of the great age did not see this aberration because of his blindness.

« There is always the perfect religion, the perfect font, perfect and accomplished usage of all things » Montaigne. . Essays – The Cannibals – Montaigne.

And what about the massacre of St. Bartholomew? Montaigne does not say, but there think hard: Catholics who threw thousands of Huguenots in the Seine-they were not savages? Was it the most defensible killing cannibalism?

Montaigne of cannibals


For Montaigne, the wild, it is European, intolerant, exploitative, cruel, the one who made a gladiatorial combat, a bullfight, hunting, public hanging, a show, a leisure of the slave trade, of greed and power a national sport. Montaigne testing dares to question certain aspects of official dogma. He does not reject religion but away from the everyday; he wants the wise, gentle, respectful of human aspiration to happiness. With Cannibals, he denounced the Christian dogmas, these claims that we can challenge or perish, as Giordano Bruno and many others …

By the same author Dolfi

The text of Montaigne The cannibals (Essays)

Of Cannibals

WHEN the King Pyrrhus passed in Italy, after he had recongneu the order of the army that the Romans fent him to the front; I know not, he says, what barbarians are those cy (for the Greeks and all appelloyent estrangeres Nations) but the layout of this army I voy, is by no means barbaric. Gone said the Greeks from that Flaminius did go to their country: Philippus and saw a mound, order and distribution of the Roman camp, his Kingdom under Publius Sulpicius Galba. That’s how it must be kept from attaching to vulgar opinions, and be judged by voye of reason, not by the common voice.

I have been long time with me a man who had lived ten or twelve years in this other world, which hath been descouvert in our age, in the place where Vilegaignon print earth, he named the France Antarctica. This descouverte a INFINY own country, seem high consideration. I know not if I can spond, it does happen in the face of some other, much larger-than we Assigns beene deceived by this-cy. I have fear that we have eyes larger than the belly, and more curiosity, we have capacity: We embrace all, but we estreignons that wind. Plato introduced Solon telling have learned priests of the city of Sais in Ægypte that once and before the flood, there were a large Island named Atlantis droict at the mouth of the strait of Gibaltar, who held more than païs Africa and together both Asia and the kings of this country there, who not only possessed that Isle, but estoyent estendus in the mainland if before they tenoyent the width of Africa, till in Ægypte, and length of Europe, up in Tuscany, entreprindrent to span till on Asia, and subjugate all the nations that border the Mediterranean sea, up the Gulf of Majour sea and for this effect, crossed the Spains, Gaul, Italy till in Greece, where the Athenians soustindrent them: but after some time, and the Athenians, and they and their Isle were swallowed by the flood. It is true-similar, that this extreme ravages of water has the deed to strange alterations to dwellings of the earth as one holds that the sea has cut the Sicily with Italy:

Haec loca vi quondam and vasta convulsed ruined,
Dissiluisse ferunt, cum protinus utraque tellus
Una drill

Cyprus with Surie; Isle of Euboea, the land of Boeoce: and elsewhere joined lands, who were divided, filling with silt and sand pits in-between.

sterilisque IUD malaria s aptaque handed
Vicinas urbe realities, and felt serious aratrum

But there is no great appearance that this Isle is this new world, we just descouvrir: because it touchoit almost the Spaine, and it would be an incredible effect of inundation, of having distant as it is more than twelve hundred leagues: Besides what modern navigations have almost descouvert-ja, it is not an island, nsaids land and continent with the east India of the one side, and lands, which are much under the two other poles: or if it is separated, it’s such a small strait and interval, it does not deserve to Estre named Isle for it.

It seems that there aye natural movements to some, others feverish in these great bodies, as in ours. When I consider the impression that my river Dordoigne deed of my time to droicte bank of its descent; and in twenty years it so Gaigné and A concealed the basis for several bastimens, I see that it is an extraordinary agitation: for if she fust tousjours driveway that train, or DEUST going to happen, the figure of world would be overthrown: but it takes their changes: one while they espandent of the one side, one while another, one while they contain. I do not mean flash floods wherewith we handle causes. Medoc, along the sea, my brother Sieur d’Arsac, sees his land, buried much under the sand, the sea vomits before it: the feast of some bastimens paroist again, his rents and domains are in eschangez pasquages ​​meager. The inhabitants say that for some time, the sea grows so strong to them, they lost four leagues of land: These sands are her harbingers. And see great montjoies of moving arenas, walking half a league before her, and gaignent own country.

The other testimony of antiquity, which we want to bring this descouverte is in Aristotle, at least if this little booklet The inouyes wonders is he. It says here that some Carthaginians estants jettez through the Atlantic Ocean, off the strait of Gibaltar and navigé long time, had descouvert end a large fertile island, all revestuë wood and arrousée large and deep rivers , strong esloignée all dry land: and they, and others since, attract the goodness and fertility of the soil, it went away with their wives and children, and began to get used to. Lords of Carthage, seeing that their country dépeuploit gradually made explicit deffence on death penalty, which no longer EUST to go there, and drove out these new inhabitants, who fear, they say, that course of time they multiplied so they Vinsent the supplantassent themselves the and ruinassent their estat. This narrative of Aristotle did not agree with our neufves land.

This man I Avoy, estoit coarse and simple man, who is an own condition to make real testimonie: For fine people notice more curiously, and more things, but they glosent them: and to make their interpretation, and persuade, they only can keep to alter a little history: they never represent you pure things; they incline and the mask as the face they have seen them: and to give credit to their judgment, and you bring it, this prestent willingly Coste in the matter, the longer and amplify it. Or you need a very-faithful man, or so simple, it has not wherewith bastir and give true-seeming to fauces inventions; and that has nothing espouse. Mine estoit tel: and besides this deed he see various times and several mattelots marchans, cogneuz he had on this trip. So I just this information, without inquiring about what cosmographers saying.

It would be necessary we surveyors that we fissent particular narrative places where they have beene. But to have this advantage over us, having seen Palestine, they want to enjoy the privilege of telling us news of all the remaining world. I voudroye everyone escrivist he knoweth, and as much as he knoweth: not only in this but in all other subjects: For such may have some special knowledge or experience of the nature of a river, or a fountain, who knows not the rest, that what each knowes: It toutesfois undertake, to run this small Loppin, to write of all physics. As Vice welling several major inconveniences.

But I think, back to my point, there is nothing barbarous and savage in this nation, to what I reported in: if everyone calls barbarism, which is not its use. As true we have another sight of truth, and reason than the example and idea of ​​the opinions and customs of the own country where we are. Here is the tousjours parfaicte religion, parfaicte police Parfaict accomply and use of all things. They are wild mesmes, we call it the wild abundance of fruits, that kind of soy and its regular progresse has produicts: where in truth it is those that we tamper with nostre artifice and destournez of public order, that we should call rather have wild. In those there are vivid and vigorous, the vrayes, and more useful and natural virtues and proprietez; which we have in those abbastardies-cy, the accommodating to the pleasure of nostre corrupt Goust. And yet if after the same flavor and delicacy is our taste Mesme excellent in emulation of ours in various fruits of these countries there without culture: it is not reasonable that art gaigne the honor on poinct nostre great and powerful mother nature. We reloaded as the beauty and richness of his works by Noz inventions, as we all estouffée. If do with all that purity shines, it makes a wonderful shame Noz vain and frivolous enterprises be undertaken.

And sua sponte veniunt hederae melius,
Emerges in solis and formosior Antris arbutus,
and volucres nulla arte Dulcius canunt

All our efforts can only get to represent the nest of any oyselet, its texture, its beauty and utility of its use: not the fissure of chetive spider. All things, says Plato, are produced or by nature, or by fortune, or by art. The largest and most beautiful by either of the first two: the smallest and imparfaictes the last.

These nations therefore seem so barbaric, for receu little of how the human mind, and Estre still strong neighbors of their original naifveté. The natural laws control their encores, little by abbastardies ours: But it’s so pure, it takes me some time displeasure, wherewith the cognizance not be coming rather have, time that there were men who had sçeu judge better than us. It displeases me that Lycurgus and Plato had the Ayent For it seems to me that what we see by experience in these nations there, not only surpasses all paints wherewith poetry embelly aage the gold, and all his inventions feign a happy condition of men: but the design and Mesme desire of philosophy. They have little imagine naifveté so pure and simple, as we see by experience: ny have little nostre believe that society is peust maintain with so little artifice and human soudeure. It is a nation, diroy I Plato, in which there is any kind of trafficking; no letters cognizance; zero numbers of science; no magistrate name, nor political superiority; no use of service, riches or poverty; null contracts; null succession; zero shares; null occupations, qu’oysives; no respect of kinship, that common; null vestments; no agriculture; no metal; no use of wine or wheat. The mesmes words that signify lying, treachery, dissimulation, avarice, envy, detraction, pardon, inouyes. How he would find the republic he has imagined, esloignée of this perfection?

Hos natu ra mods primum dedit .

Moreover, they live in a very pleasant-païs of country, and well-tempered: so that what was told my witness thereof, it is rare to see a sick man: and asseuré me n ‘to be seen no shaking, bleary, toothless, or bent old age. They sit along the sea, and close the Coste land, large and high montaignes, Assigns between two hundred leagues or approximately estendue fro. They have great abundance of fish and meat, which have no resemblance to ours; and eat no other artifice than cooking. The first who led a horse, although he EUST the practice in many other trips, gave them in horror as this plate, they killed him with blows of traict before the recognoistre power. Their bastimens are very long and capable of two or three hundred souls, estoffez escorse of large trees, tenans down at one end, and supportes and appuyans against each other by the feast, the mode ‘of no noz barns, which hangs coverage till the ground, and serves flanq. They have wood so hard that they cut and make their swords, and grills to cook their meat. Their licts are a cotton cloth, suspenduz against the toict, like those of Noz ships, to each his own: because women sleep apart husbands. They levent with the sun, and suddenly eat after Estre will stand, for the day: because they make another meal that He who will then. They do not drink then, as Suidas said, some other peoples of the East, which beuvoient out of the room: they drink several times a day, and all. Their drink is root of some deed, and is the color of claret wine Noz. They drink it as lukewarm: This beverage is preserved only two or three days: he has a little Goust picquant, not smoky, beneficial to the stomach, laxative and to those who have been accustomed: it is a very-agreeable beverage which is Duit there. Instead of bread they use a certain white matter, like candied coriander. I ay Taste the Goust is sweet and bland. All day is going to dance. Younger go hunting the beasts, for all arcs. Some women, however, fun to heat their drink, which is their main office. There is someone old, who in the morning before they start eating, preaches together all Grangée, walking from one end to another, and reiterating a clause Mesme several times, till it ayt he completed the tour (because they are bastimens that well paced long) it recommends that two things, valor against the enemy, and friendship with their wives. And never are failing to notice this obligation refrein them, it is they who maintain their lukewarm and flavored drink. This void in many places, among others in me, the form of their beds, their cords, their swords and brasselets wood wherewith they cover their wrists in the fighting, and large canes open at one end, by the sound which they soustiennent the Cadance in their dance. They are tidal by all, and make the hair much more clearly than we, without further rasouër as wood or stone. They believe the souls eternal; and those who have deserved well of the gods, Estre housed part of the sky where the sun rises: the cursed, the Coste West.

They know not what I priests and prophets, who although rarely present to the people, their home Assigns the hillside. Upon arrival, he deed a great feast and solemn assembly of several villages (each barn, as I ay descrite, deed a village, and are about to Françoise a league from each other) This prophet speaks to them in public, exhorting them to virtue and their duty: but all their ethical science contains only two articles of the resolution to the war, and affection to their wives. Cettuy-cy their prognostic things to come, and the events they have to hope their enterprises be undertaken: forwards or destourne of war: but if by such as where you have to guess well, and if they happens otherwise he foretold them, it is chopped into a thousand parts, if they catch him, and convicted for false Prophet. At this cause he who has once mesconté, no more the void.

It is God’s gift, as divination: wherefore it ought voyla Estre a punishable imposture to abuse. Among the Scythians, when the soothsayers had failly meeting, we slept enforgez the feet and hands, full charriotes heather, drawn by oxen, Wherein we burn at the faisoit. Those who handle the subjettes things at conduitte human sufficiency, are excusable to do whatever they can. But these others that come pipant asseurances of an extraordinary faculty, which is out of nostre cognizance: not should we punish them, that they maintain the effect of their promise, and their temerity imposture?

They have their wars against nations that are beyond their mountains, further into the mainland ausquelles they all go naked, do assigns other weapons as bows or wooden swords, appointees at one end, to the languages ​​fashion noz espieuz. This is esmerveillable thing of the firmness of their struggles, that never end by murder and bloodshed, for roads and dread, they do sçavent it is. Everyone refers to his trophy the test of the enemy he killed, and attaches it to the entrance of his house. After having long time treated their prisoners well, and all the conveniences, which they may adviser, one who is the master, deed a great assembly of his cognoissans. He ties a rope to one of the arms of the prisoner, by the end of which he holds, esloigné few steps, for fear of Estre offense, and gives the dearest of his friends, the other arm to hold of Mesme; and two of them in the presence of the whole assembly to knock the sword strokes. This deed they rostissent, and eat together, and fend loppins into those of their friends, who are absent. It’s not like we think, for food, and the Scythians formerly faisoient is to represent an extreme revenge. And it is so Assigns apperceu that the Portuguese, who estoient r’alliez their opponents, usoient of another kind of death against them, when they took them; which estoit, burying them till the waist, and pull the remaining body strength shots traict and hang them after they thought that these icy men of the other world (as those who had sown the knowledge of many vices Parmy their neighborhood, and, who were much greater masters than them in any kind of malice) prenoient not without opportunity this kind of revenge, and that it ought Estre more sour than theirs, which they began to leave their old way to follow this-cy. I’m not that we marry remerquons the barbaric horror that there is in such an action, but ouy well jugeans wherewith to point their faults, we are so dazzle to ours. I think there is more barbarity in eating a man alive, that eat dead at deschirer by torments and gehennes, even full of feeling body do to roast the menu, do bite and bruise dogs and swine (as we have not only leu, but seen from fresche memory, not between ancient enemies, but among neighbors and fellow citizens, and what is worse, under the pretext of piety and religion) as to roast it and eat it after tRESPASSE.

Chrysippus and Zeno chiefs Stoicque sect, have well thought that there was no harm to use nostre charoigne, To which it fust for nostre need, and draw food: as our ancestors estans besieged by Caesar in the city Alexia, is resolved soustenir hunger this seat by the bodies of old men, women, and other useless people in combat.

Vascones, fama is alimentis talibus usi
Produxere Animas

And doctors are not afraid to use any kind of use, for nostre health; either to apply within, or outside: But he never found any opinion if desreglée which excusast betrayal, disloyalty, tyranny, cruelty, which are common mistakes Noz.

We can call them so many barbarians had ESGARD to the rules of reason, but not had ESGARD us who surpass them in every kind of barbarity. Their war is all noble and generous, and as an excuse and beauty that this human disease can receive: it has other foundation among them, that the only jealousy of virtue. They are not in discussion of the conquest of new lands, for they still jouyssent this natural uberté, which provides the unemployed and without difficulty, of all things necessary, in such abundance that they have no use for enlarge their limits. They are still in that happy point not to desire that as much as their natural need to order them: all that is past, is superfluous for them. They usually live entr’appellent those Mesme aage brothers: children, those in dessouz; and old men are fathers to all others. These Cy leave to their heirs in common the full possession of property by undivided, without any basis, that He who will all pure, that nature gives to his creatures, producing the world. If their neighbors pass the mountains for the next attack, and they take the victory over them, acquest the winning, it’s the glory, and the advantage of Estre remained master value and virtue: for otherwise they have only to goods of the vanquished, and are returning to their country, where they have no lack of necessary thing; ny fault yet this largely to wit, fortunately enjoy their condition and be content. Gone are those cy in turn. They ask their prisoners, ransom another confession and recognoissance of Estre defeated: But it does not find a whole century, who loves better death than relascher, nor by capacity, NY speech, a single point of invincible courage of greatness. There is no void in, which had rather be killed and eaten, than requiring only do not Estre. They traictent them freely, so that their life is even more expensive: and commonly maintain menaces of their future death torments they have to suffer there, the apprests that stands to this effect, detranchement of their members, and feast their will despens. All this deed for that purpose alone, to snatch some of their mouth soft speech or lowered, or make them want to get fuyr; Gaigner for this advantage to have them espouvantez, and have deed force their constancy. As well as to the take is in this alone that is the true victory:

victoria is nulla
Quam quae confessos animo quoque subjugat hostes

The very warlike Geldings fighters, not once poursuivoient their peak also making the enemy at their mercy. For in having torn confession, they laissoyent go without offense, without ransom; except for more to draw word not to arm themselves at the front against them.

Gaignons enough benefits on our enemies, who are borrowing benefits, not ours: It is the quality of a porter, not of virtue, to have arms and stiff legs more: it is a dead body and quality, the provision: it is a stroke of fortune to stumble nostre enemy, and him esblouyr eyes by the light of the sun: it is a tour of art and science, which can fall in a cowardly person and nothingness, of Estre adequate fencing. The estimate and the price of a man is the heart and the will: this is where the true gist honor the valor is firmness, not of legs and arms, but of courage and the soul: it does not consist in the value of horse ours, ny noz weapons, but the ours. He that falls obstinate in his courage, if succid erit, genu Pugnat . Which for some danger from the neighboring death relasche no point did his asseurance, watching encores making the foul, his enemy of a firm and desdaigneuse sight, he fought, not to us, but of fortune: he is killed, not defeated: the bravest are both more infortunez.

Also are there any losses triumphant victories at will. Ny four victories sisters, the most beautiful that the Sun aye onques seen his eyes, Salamis, Plataea, Mycale, Sicily, dared oppose onques all their glory all to the glory of the King Leonidas desconfiture and his family at no Thermopylae.

Who never ran a more glorious desire, and ambitious to win the fight, the captain Ischolas loss? Moreover ingeniously and curiously has asseuré of his salvation, that him of his ruin? He was, committed deffendre certain passage of the Peloponnese against the Arcadians; Quoy to do, being unable at all, seeing the nature of the place, and Inequality of forces: and resolvent is that everything presenteroit enemies, would have of necessity to remain there: On the other hand, feeling unworthy and its own virtue and magnanimity, and not Lacedaemonian, of failing to pay: it print between these two extremities, a party means so: younger and rested his troops, he kept them to the tuition and service their own country, and there dismissed: and those which the default estoit least, he deliberated for soustenir it not: and they died achetter make enemies entering the more expensive, it would be him: as it happened. For Easting another while surrounded on all sides by the Arcadians: after having a great deed butchery, he and his family were put wholes over the sword. Is it a trophy assigned to veincueurs, which is better deu these veincus? The true veincre has its roolle the Estour, not the salvation: honor and consists of virtue, to fight not to fight.

To return unto our history, it takes until these prisoners go to all that is done to them, that countdown during those two or three months they are kept, they are holding gaye they urging their masters to hasten to put them in this espreuve they deffient them, slander, reproach them their cowardice, and the number of battailles lost against theirs. I have a song faicte by a prisoner, where there’s this thing done: They boldly come trétous and assemble to dine with him, for they shall eat when and as their fathers and their ayeulx, who SERVY of food and food to his body: the muscles, he says, this flesh and these veins, are the vostres, poor fools Estes you: you do not recognoissez that the substance of the members of your ancestors is held again: savor the good, you will find the Goust of vostre own flesh invention, which does not feel barbarism. Those who paint the dying, and that represent the action when you knock down, they paint the prisoner spitting in the face of those who kill, and doing their pout. In truth they never stop till the last sigh, to defy and deffier voice and countenance. No lie, priced at us, here much wild men or because they must well soyent wisely, or we let the: there is a wonderful distance between their shape and ours.

The men have several wives, and have even more, they are in a better reputation for valor: This is a remarkable beauty in their marriages, that after the same jealousy our wives have to empescher of us friendship and bienvueillance other women, theirs have any such to acquire them. Estans more careful of the honor of their husbands, than anything else, they try and put their solicitude to have as companions they can, especially as it is a testimony of the power of the husband.

The ours cry miracle: it is not. This is a properly matrimonial virtue: but the highest estage. And in the Bible, Lea, Rachel, Sarah and Jacob’s wives furnished their beautiful maidens to their husbands, and Livia seconded the appetites of Augustus, his interest: and the wife of Roy Deiotarus Stratonique, Presta not only to the use of her husband, a handsome young chambermaid, who ferved but carefully nourished children: and feit espaule in succession to the estats their father.

And so we think that everything points cecy will face a simple and servile obligation to their usance, and printing the authoritie of their former custome without speech and without judgment, and for the soul if stupid, that not being able to take other party must allege some features of their sufficiency. Besides him whom I vien to recite one of their warlike songs, I love un’autre ay, beginning in this direction: « Snake arreste toy, toy snake arreste, that my sister pulls on your boss painting, and how the work of a rich cord, I can give to my love: so be anytime your beauty and preferred arrangement to all other snakes. « 

The first verse is the refrein song. Now I have enough trade with poetry to judge cecy, not only that there is nothing of barbarism in the imagination, but it is entirely deed Anacreontic. Their language, moreover, it is a sweet language, and that sound agreeable, removing the Greek endings.

Three of them, how ignorant couttera one day their peace, and their good happiness, the cognizance of this side of corruption, and that this trade will be born their ruin, as I presuppose that it is advanced-ja (although miserables to Estre let the Piper desire of newness, and he left the sweetness of their sky to come see the nostre) were to Roüan, time that fire Roy Charles neufiesme there estoit: Roy spoke to them long time , they were shown nostre way nostre pump, as a beautiful city: after that, someone asked them advis, and wanted them to wit, that they had found it more admirable: they respondirent three things, which I have lost troisiesme, and am very sorry; but I still ay both in memory. They said they found strong first foreign place, that so many great men portans beard and strong arm, Roy, who were around (it is true-they fpoke like the Swiss of his guard) is to obey to soubmissent a child, and that we rather have someone choisissoit them to order: Secondly (they have a way of their language they call such men, half of each other) they avoyent apperceu that there were among us men full and Soak all kinds of conveniences, and their moitiez estoient beggars at their doors, décharnez of hunger and poverty; and strange as these trouvoient moitiez icy needy, might suffer such injustice, they prinsent other by the throat, or set fire to their homes.

I parlay with one of them a very long time, but I had an interpreter who followed me so bad, and if estoit hinders to receive my fantasies through his stupidity, I do peus draw anything worth. On what I demanday him what fruit he receiv’d the superiority he had his Parmy (because it estoit a captain and sailors Noz Roy nommoient) he told me that estoit, walking the first war : how many men he estoit suivy; he showed me a place in space, to signify that estoit as much as he might in such a space, it could Estre four or five thousand men: If the war off all his authoritie estoit expired; he says he remained for him in this, that when he visitoit villages that depended on him, we dressoit trails him through hayes their woods, where he peust spend at ease.

All this is not going too badly, but Quoy? they do not wear breeches.