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Montaigne was born in 1533 into a noble Catholic family of Gascogne. France then entered the Renaissance and Francis the first reigned from 1515. The Lutheran Reformation (Protestantism) threatened royal authority, based on the Catholic Church: the first Protestant persecution began in 1520. They degenerated into civil war, which reached its peak in 1572, on the occasion of the massacre of the saint Bartholomew.

Montaigne was the man of one book (but what a book!): The Essays. He began writing them in 1571, following his voluntary retirement from public life (he was mayor of Bordeaux). It will correct until his death in 1592.

Montaigne of cannibals

Montaigne was too long considered a writer of the sixteenth century. Montaigne deserved for sure the title of philosopher!

Seeking over its pages the way to the good life ( hedonism ), he was successively:

  • Stoic (quoting Seneca who sought inner peace by releasing material goods);
  • skeptical (by becoming aware of the limits of human knowledge, constantly disturbed by the senses, but which allows, at the same time, infinite development of the mind);
  • Epicurean (quoting Lucretius who merely simple by becoming aware of the « smallness » of man face to infinity);

He dared to challenge the then undisputed dogmas of the Catholic church and was, in this sense, a distant precursor of the Enlightenment. He was also interested in public morality.

Montaigne wanted to be an honest man. He hated hypocrisy. The guru of the Kings was then Machiavelli who, in The Prince, had proposed to the Monarchs (Italian) revenue to last in politics lies, cowardice, the pretense.

For Machiavelli , these tools should be used extensively to ensure government stability. Everything was justifiable in the name of « reasons of state », including crime. Montaigne frankly inscribed in the opposite camp, putting honesty above all.

In tests, it has sought to paint himself a banal be (in his words); and, through him, to paint humanity. The tests therefore have a universal dimension.

Montaigne of cannibals

Historical context

Montaigne wrote The cannibals in 1595. France was barely fell religious wars that had bloodied the kingdom. We celebrated the 20th anniversary of St. Bartholomew: thousands of Huguenots (Protestants) were thrown into the Seine by the Guise (Catholic leaders) and their accomplices. Henry of Navarre, one of the few survivors of the massacre, had renounced Protestantism (of Montaigne’s advice) to become the good King Henry IV of France. By signing the Edict of Nantes (1598), he offered France a relative religious peace, until the revocation of the Edict by Louis IV.

Curiously, Montaigne does not address the issue of religious wars in his work. Instead, he engages in a plea for tolerance and announcing the works of Enlightenment (Short Treatise on Tolerance Voltaire particular).

The religion of Montaigne

Montaigne was from a Catholic family. He also submitted the tests to the censorship of the Church. He was a Catholic, but by loyalty to his country. In Islam, he would surely have been a Muslim … This attitude hardly pushed him to religious excesses: he just kept faith and religion than what seemed fair: charity, justice as social glue .

He was, in the vocabulary of today, a moderate. He refused Christian asceticism: the renunciation of life, which grew dolorism search the believer pain to imitate the passion of Christ, inviting him to postpone his life, to be now undead in the wild hope being an undead later (as suicide bombers today).

The alliance between the sword (Nobles) and the brush (the Church) has never been as powerful: the Nobles ensured the legitimacy of the Church (and vice versa), with the goal of mutual benefit on the back of the little people.

To ensure the sustainability of such a system, the Church tried to fight against all forms of heresy, which would amount to challenge his authority, and this by playing skillfully on:

  • fear of the last punishment , only the priest could relieve (harm to the king by divine right, it was harm God);
  • ignorance : the Church kept the people in a state of profound ignorance to be the only credible interface with God (only priests read Latin);
  • Confession (a kind of intelligence service extremely powerful general);
  • custom ( La Boetie, in his wonderful book « De voluntary servitude.  » showed that the serf « get used » for generations, in bondage.

Montaigne of cannibals

Reading report – summary and comments

An excerpt to start

« Now I think, going back to my point, there is nothing barbarous and savage in this nation to what was reported to me; except that each man calls barbarism whatever is not of use; as real, it seems that we have another sight of truth and reason than the example and idea of the opinions customs and practices of the country where we are.

There is always the perfect religion, the perfect font, perfect and accomplished usage of all things. They are wild, as we call wild fruits that nature, self and its regular progress, has produced where, in truth, it is those that we have altered our artifice and diverted from the common order, we should rather call wild.

As these are vivid and vigorous true and useful and natural virtues and properties, which we have bastardized in these, and have only accommodated the pleasure of our corrupt taste. If however, the same flavor and delicacy is our excellent taste, in emulation of us, in various fruits of these countries then without culture. It is not reasonable that art wins the point of honor on our great and powerful mother Nature. We reloaded as the beauty and richness of his works by our inventions, we have all the stifled. If is it that wherever her purity shines, it is wonderful to shame our vain and frivolous companies […] « Montaigne, Essays, I, 31. cannibals.

Montaigne of cannibals

The new World

Recently, the « new world » was (re) discovered by Christopher Columbus (1492). The European, still borrowing religiosity, discovers with astonishment that God created other creatures « in human form. » Separate the known world by an ocean, these creatures could clearly not descend from Adam and Eve (we did not know that humanity had a common root in Africa and that the Indians were far distant descendants of Adam and Eve (or rather Lucy), moved to America by the Bering Strait).

Had God created two kinds of men? The European man he was no longer the world of the center, the only creation of the Almighty? Already Copernicus ((On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres or celestial spheres) in 1543 had wanted to dislodge the land of the Universe center The alert had been hot for the Church who held the geocentric Ptolemaic. A divine creation (the man) could not decently be placed on the periphery. Giordano Bruno, in 1600, went even further by suggesting the existence of other worlds and even alien creatures. He finished on pyres in Rome. with the discovery the New World, it was even a whole section of the Bible that, in an instant, was called into question: the Church’s authority was likely to be seriously undermined.

The earthquake in 1550 experienced its epicenter in Valladolid at the eponymous Controversy controversy, initiated by Charles Quint took the form of a heated debate between the two religious professionals that were:

  • the Dominican Bartolomé de Las Casas, on the one hand, and
  • the theologian Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, on the other.

Le Grand Charles wanted to settle an existential question: could we consider the creatures of the new world as men? Since the beginning of colonization, the treatment suffered by the natives were inhuman, and in consequence, the Conquistadors exposed to risks of hell:

« The voice of one crying in the wilderness of this island (the New World), it’s me, and I tell you that you are all in mortal sin because of your cruelty to an innocent race. »

But these « savages », which practiced cannibalism and human sacrifice, could, for others, be classified as animals, without souls, which took away the Spanish abuses against all sinful dimension and legitimized slavery .

The debate raged when Montaigne decided to get an idea by itself in reaching out to them on the port of Rouen. He showed a Cartesian approach, refusing to accept any arguments made on the subject, reported by travelers and commented on by the thinkers of the Church. Cannibal is the minutes of the meeting.

Montaigne of cannibals

Montaigne precursor of the Enlightenment

The question arises Montaigne is deceptively simple: it is the wild the one it is? The title of the essay seems to settle the question: it names the Indians « cannibals ». And no sane person could assimilate cannibals to anything but wild. The question seems heard. Yet Montaigne will show us otherwise.

Montaigne of cannibals

Montaigne’s arguments

« They are wild, as we call » wild « fruit that nature, self and its regular progress, has produced ». Essays – The Cannibals – Montaigne.

Montaigne shows that the word « wild », including in our vocabulary, not necessarily a pejorative connotation in his example, wild fruit would even « superior » to the cultivated fruit, since it is created by nature, by our Creator is good by definition.

Thus, for Montaigne, wild is the European wild fruit that is grown fruit. It seems to fit into the Greek wisdom for the return to nature (Democritus Epicureanism, Stoicism of Seneca and Marcus Aurelius Diogenes); wisdoms that encouraged to move away from the city to rediscover the taste of simple things, rejecting the superfluous, fleeing the artificial, keeping only the just-need, cultivating a sober happiness.

« We have so recharged the beauty and richness of his works by our inventions, we have all drowned. » Essays – The Cannibals – Montaigne.

We note similarities with the work of Diderot, to which only nature can be a source of morality. The man then that the damage. Diderot shows, for example, in a plea for the « natural law », that the institution of marriage (we created) is against nature and the bane of our civilization:

« Nothing, indeed, it seems you more foolish than a precept which forbids the change in us; controlling a constancy that there can be, and that violates the freedom of the male and the female, by chaining them forever to one another; a loyalty that most capricious of pleasures terminal to a single individual; an oath of immutability of two beings of flesh, in the face of a sky that is not even a moment, in dens threatening ruin; at the bottom of a rock falling powder; at the foot of a tree that chaps; on a rock that shakes? Believe me, you made the man’s condition worse than that of animals. « Diderot – Supplement to travel Bougainvillea.

Montaigne of cannibals

Montaigne an environmentalist?

We find now this return to « authentic » in political ecology. While Descartes wanted man Dominate nature, environmentalist morality considers that any human invention is a priori bad (GMOs car assisted reproduction, cloning, abortion) and that only nature is defensible (Bio stands for good in their vocabulary). He joined in this respect, believers who also advocate a strict respect for natural law.

Montaigne of cannibals

Our poor reading grid

Montaigne denounces our European grid biased reading our experience, our culture, our history, our habits: we believe that we know not on the basis of our European criteria are for Montaigne, at least, skimpy. We consider the behavior of wild with a Bible in hand! Of course, Native Americans have different codes, a moral good to them after their way of life, which may in no case enter our Christian boxes. But that does not make wild but only different beings.

Montesquieu will do the reverse exercise in the Persian letters in which he will show that our society, our customs, seen through the eyes of a stranger may seem equally ridiculous: the Persian and was surprised that we have put a child 12 years (Louis XIV) to the throne of France, only on the basis of heredity, without considering its competence to manage a kingdom. The French of the great age did not see this aberration because of his blindness.

« There is always the perfect religion, the perfect font, perfect and accomplished usage of all things » Montaigne. . Essays – The Cannibals – Montaigne.

And what about the massacres of St. Bartholomew? Montaigne does not say it but he thinks very strong: Catholics who threw thousands of Huguenots in the Seine-they were not savages? Was it more defensible than cannibalism?

Montaigne of cannibals

conclusions

For Montaigne, the wild, it is European, intolerant, exploitative, cruel, the one who made a fight of gladiators, of a bullfight, hunting, public hanging, a show, a recreation of the slave trade, of greed and power a national sport.

Montaigne testing dare to question certain aspects of official dogma. He does not reject religion but away from the everyday; he wants the wise, gentle, respectful of the human aspiration to happiness. With Cannibals, he denounced the Christian dogmas, these claims that we can not question or perish, as Giordano Bruno and many others …

The text of Montaigne The cannibals (Essays)

The Trial- CHAPTER XXX
Of Cannibals

WHEN the King Pyrrhus passed in Italy, after he had recongneu the order of the army that the Romans fent him to the front; I know not, he said, what are those barbarians-cy (for the Greeks and appelloyent estrangeres all nations) but the layout of this army I voy is in no barbarian. As much said the Greeks of that which Flaminius did go to their country: and Philippus saw a mound, order and distribution of the Roman camp, in his kingdom, under Publius Sulpicius Galba. That’s how it must be kept from attaching to vulgar opinions, and be judged by voye of reason, not by the common voice.

Ay I had long time with moy a man who had lived ten or twelve years in this other world, which hath been descouvert in our age, in the place or print Vilegaignon land, he named the France Antarctica. This descouverte a INFINY own country, seem high consideration. I know not if I spond then, it does happen in the face of some other, much larger-than we Assigns beene deceived by this-cy. Ay I fear that we have eyes bigger than your stomach, and more curiosity, we have capacity: We embrace all, but we estreignons that wind. Plato introduced Solon telling have learned priests of the city of Sais in Ægypte that once and before the deluge, there were a large Isle named Atlantis, droict at the mouth of the strait of Gibaltar, who held more than païs Africa and together both Asia and the kings of this country there, who not only possessed that Isle, but estoyent estendus in the mainland if before they tenoyent the width of Africa, till in Ægypte, and length of Europe, up in Tuscany, entreprindrent to climb over till on Asia, and subjugate all nations bordering the Mediterranean sea, up the Gulf of Majour sea and to this effect, crossed the Spains, Gaul, Italy till in Greece, where the Athenians soustindrent them: but after some time, and the Athenians, and they and their Isle were swallowed by the flood. It is true-similar, that this extreme ravages of water has the deed to strange alterations to dwellings of the earth as one holds that the sea has cut the Sicily with Italy:

Haec loca vi quondam and vasta convulsed ruined,
Dissiluisse ferunt, cum protinus utraque tellus
Una drill
.

Cyprus with Surie; Isle of Euboea, the land of the Boeoce: and elsewhere joined lands, who were divided, filling with silt and sand pits-between.

sterilisque diu malaria s aptaque handed
Vicinas urbe alit, and felt serious aratrum
.

But there is no great appearance that this Isle is this new world, we just descouvrir: because it touchoit almost the Spaine, and it would be an amazing effect of inundation, of having remote as it is, more than twelve hundred leagues: Besides what modern navigations have almost descouvert-ja, it is not an island, ains land and continent with the east India the one side, and with lands, which are much under the two other poles: or if it is separated, it’s such a small strait and interval, it does not deserve to Estre named Isle for it.

It seems that there aye natural movements some, others feverish in these great bodies, as in ours. When I consider the impression that my river of Dordoigne deed of my time to droicte bank of its descent; and in twenty years it so Gaigné and A concealed the basis for several bastimens, I see that it is an extraordinary agitation: for if she fust tousjours driveway that train, or DEUST going to happen, the figure of world would be reversed: But it takes their changes: another while they espandent of the one side, one while another, one while they contain. I’m not talking flash floods wherewith we handle causes. Medoc, along the sea, my brother Sieur d’Arsac, sees his land, buried much under the sand, the sea vomits before it: the feast of some bastimens paroist yet: his rents and domains are in eschangez pasquages meager. The inhabitants say that for some time, the sea is pushing so hard towards them, they lost four leagues of land: These sands are its harbingers. And see great montjoies of moving arenas, walking half a league before her, and gaignent own country.

The other testimony of antiquity, which we want to bring this descouverte, is in Aristotle, at least if this booklet Des inouyes wonders is to him. He says there that some Carthaginians estants Throw away through the Atlantic Ocean, off the strait of Gibaltar and navigé long time, had descouvert late great fertile isle, any revestuë wood and arrousée large and deep rivers , strong esloignée all dry land: and they, and others since, attract the goodness and fertility of the soil, it went away with their wives and children, and began to get used to. Lords of Carthage, seeing that their country dépeuploit gradually made explicit deffence on death penalty, which no longer EUST to go there, and drove out these new inhabitants, who fear, they say, that course of time they multiplied so they Vinsent the supplantassent themselves the and ruinassent their estat. This narration of Aristotle did not agree with our neufves land.

This man I Avoy, estoit coarse and simple man, a veritable own condition to make a testimony: For fine people notice more curiously, and more things, but they glosent them: and to make their interpretation, and persuade, they only can keep to taint a little history: they never represent you pure things; they tilt the mask and the face as they have seen them: and to give credit to their judgment, and you get there, willingly prestent this Coste in the matter, the longer and amplify. Or it takes a very faithful man-or so simple, it has not wherewith bastir and give true-seeming to fauces inventions; and that has nothing espouse. Mine estoit tel: and besides this he deed to see various times and several mattelots marchans, cogneuz he had on this trip. So I content myself with this information, without inquiring about what cosmographers saying.

It would be necessary we surveyors, which we fissent particular narrative places where they have beene. But to have this advantage over us, having seen Palestine, they want to enjoy the privilege of telling us news of all the remaining world. I voudroye each escrivist he knoweth, and as much as he knoweth: not only in this but in all other subjects: For such may have some particular knowledge or experience of the nature of a river, or a fountain, who knows not the rest, that what each knowes: It toutesfois undertake, to run this small Loppin, to write of all physics. This vice welling several major inconveniences.

But I think, going back to my point, there is nothing barbarous and savage in this nation, what we reported in me: if everyone calls barbarism, which is not its use. As in truth we have another sight of truth, and reason than the example and idea of the opinions and usances own country where we are. Here is the tousjours parfaicte religion, parfaicte police Parfaict accomply and use of all things. They are savages mesmes, we call it the wild abundance of fruits, that kind of soy and its regular progresse has produicts: where in truth it is those we alter nostre by artifice, and destournez of public order, that we should call rather have wild. In those there are vivid and vigorous, the vrayes, more useful and natural virtues and proprietez; which we have in those abbastardies-cy, the pleasure of accommodating the nostre corrupt Goust. And yet if the Mesme flavor and delicacy is our taste excellent Mesme in emulation of ours in various fruits of these countries there, without culture: it is not reasonable that art gaigne the honor on poinct nostre great and powerful mother nature. We reloaded as the beauty and richness of his works by Noz inventions, we have all estouffée. If do with all that purity shines, it makes a wonderful shame in vain and frivolous noz enterprises be undertaken.

And sua sponte veniunt hederae melius,
Surgit and in solis formosior Antris arbutus,
and volucres nulla arte Dulcius canunt
.

Our efforts can only get to represent the nest of any oyselet, its texture, its beauty and utility of its use: not the fissure of chetive spider. All things, says Plato, are produced or by nature, or by fortune, or by art. The largest and most beautiful by either of the first two: the smallest and imparfaictes the last.

These nations therefore seem as barbarians for receu little of how the human mind, and Estre still strong neighbors of their original naifveté. The natural laws control their encores, little by abbastardies ours: But it’s so pure, it takes me some time displeasure, wherewith the cognizance not rather have has come, the time that there were men who had sçeu judge better than us. It displeases me that Lycurgus and Plato had the Ayent For it seems to me that what we see by experience in these nations there, not only surpasses all paints wherewith poetry embelly aage the gold, and all his inventions feign a happy condition of men: but the design and Mesme desire for philosophy. They have little imagine naifveté pure and simple, as we see by experience: ny have little nostre believe that society is peust maintain with so little artifice and human soudeure. It is a nation, diroy I Plato, in which there is any kind of trafficking; no cognizance of letters; null numbers science; no magistrate name, nor of political superiority; no use of service, wealth, or poverty; void contracts; null succession; zero shares; null occupations, qu’oysives; no respect of kinship, that common; null vestments; no agriculture; no metal; no use of wine or corn. The mesmes words that signify lying, treachery, dissimulation, avarice, envy, detraction, pardon, inouyes. How he would find the republic he has imagined, esloignée this perfection?

Hos natu ra mods primum dedit .

Moreover, they live in a very pleasant-païs of country, and well-tempered: so that what was told my witness thereof, it is rare to see a sick man: and asseuré me n ‘seen to be no shaking, bleary, toothless, or bent old age. They sit along the sea, and close the Coste land, large and high montaignes, Assigns between two hundred leagues or approximately expanse breadth. They have great abundance of fish and meat, which have no resemblance to ours; and eat no other artifice than cooking. The first who led a horse, although he EUST the practice in several other trips, made their horror both in this dish, they killed him with blows of traict before the recognoistre power. Their bastimens are very long, and capable of two or three hundred souls, estoffez escorse of large trees, tenans to earth at one end, and supportes and appuyans against each other by the feast, the mode ‘no noz of barns, which cover hangs till earth and serves flanq. They have wood so hard that they cut and make their swords and grills to cook their meat. Their licts are a cotton cloth, suspenduz against the toict, like those of noz ships, to each his own: because women sleep apart husbands. They levent with the sun, and suddenly after eating is Estre lift for the whole day because they do other meals that He who will then. They do not drink then, as Suidas said, some other peoples of the East, which beuvoient out of the room: they drink several times a day, and all. Their beverage is deed of any root, and is the color of noz clairets wines. They drink it as lukewarm: This beverage is preserved only two or three days: he has a little Goust picquant, not smoky, beneficial to its stomach, laxative and to those who have been accustomed: it is a very agreeable-drink product that is there. Instead of bread they use a certain white matter, like candied coriander. I ay Taste the Goust is sweet and bland. All day is going to dance. Younger go hunting the beasts, for all arcs. Part of the women, however, fun to heat their drink, which is their main office. There is someone of the elders, who in the morning before they start eating, preaches in common all Grangée, walking from one end to another, and reiterating a clause Mesme several times, till it ayt he completed the tour (because they are bastimens percent who agreed not long) it recommends that two things, valor against the enemy, and friendship with their wives. And never are failing to observe this obligation, for their refrein, it is they who maintain their lukewarm and flavored drink. This void in many places, and among others with me, the form of their beds, their cords, their swords, and brasselets wood, wherewith they cover their wrists in the fighting, and large canes open at one end, by the sound which they soustiennent the Cadence in their dance. They are raz by all, and make the hair much more clearly than we, without further rasouër as wood or stone. They believe the souls eternal; and those who have merited well of the gods, Estre housed part of the sky where the Sun rises: the cursed, the COSTÉ the West.

They know not what I priests and prophets, which although rarely present to the people, their remains Assigns the hillside. Upon arrival, he deed a great feast and solemn assembly of several villages (each barn, as I ay descrite, deed a village, and are about to Françoise a league from one another) This prophet speaks to them in public, exhorting them to virtue and their duty but their whole ethical science contains only two articles of the resolution to the war, and affection to their wives. Cettuy-cy their prognostic things to come, and the events they have to hope their enterprises be undertaken: forwards or destourne of war: but if by such as where you have to guess well, and if their otherwise it happens foretold them, it is chopped into a thousand parts, if they catch him, and convicted for false prophet. At this cause he who was once mesconté, it is more the void.

It is God’s gift, the divination: wherefore it ought voyla Estre a punishable imposture to abuse. Among the Scythians, when the soothsayers had failly meeting, we slept enforgez the feet and hands, full charriotes heather, drawn by oxen, Wherein we burn at the faisoit. Those who handle the subjettes things at conduitte of human sufficiency, are excusable to do whatever they can. But those others that come pipant asseurances of an extraordinary faculty, which is out of nostre cognizance: not should we punish them, that they maintain the effect of their promise, and their temerity imposture?

They have their wars against nations that are beyond their mountains, further in land, ausquelles they all go naked, no dependents other weapons as bows or wooden swords, appointees at one end, to the language fashion noz espieuz. This is esmerveillable thing firmness of their struggles, that never end by murder and bloodshed; for roads and dread, they do sçavent it is. Everyone refers to his trophy the testing of the enemy he killed, and attaches it to the entrance of his house. After having long time treated their prisoners well, and all the conveniences, which they may adviser, one who is the master, deed a great assembly of his cognoissans. He ties a rope to one of the arms of the prisoner, by the end of which he holds esloigné few steps, for fear of Estre offended, and gives the dearest of his friends, the other arm to hold of Mesme; and two of them in the presence of the whole assembly to knock the sword strokes. This deed they rostissent, and eat in common, and fend loppins into those of their friends, who are absent. It’s not like we think, for food, as well as the Scythians formerly faisoient is to represent an extreme vengeance. And it is so Assigns apperceu that the Portuguese, who estoient r’alliez their opponents, usoient of another kind of death against them, when they prenoient them; which estoit, burying them till the waist, and pull the remaining strength of body shots traict, and hang them after they thought that these icy men of the other world (as those who had sown the knowledge of many vices Parmy their neighborhood, and, who were much greater masters than them in any kind of malice) prenoient not without opportunity this kind of revenge, and she owed Estre more sour than theirs, which they began to leave their old way to follow this-cy. I’m not that we marry remerquons the barbaric horror there in such an action, but ouy well jugeans wherewith to point their faults, we are so dazzle to ours. I think there is more barbarity in eating a man alive, than eat the dead, to deschirer by torments and gehennes, one still full of feeling body, to roast the menu, do bite and bruise dogs and swine (as we have not only leu, but seen from fresche memory, not between ancient enemies, but among neighbors and fellow citizens, and what is worse, under the pretext of piety and religion) as the roast and eat it after tRESPASSE.

Chrysippus and Zeno leaders of the sect Stoicque have well thought that there was no harm to use nostre charoigne, To which it fust for nostre need, and draw food: as our ancestors estans besieged by Caesar in the city Alexia, is resolved soustenir hunger this seat by the bodies of old men, women, and other useless people in combat.

Vascones, fama is alimentis talibus usi
Produxere Animas
.

And doctors are not afraid to use any kind of use, for nostre health; either to apply within, or outside: But he never found any opinion if desreglée which excusast betrayal, disloyalty, tyranny, cruelty, which are common mistakes noz.

We can call them so many barbarians had ESGARD to the rules of reason, but not had ESGARD us, which surpass them in every kind of barbarity. Their war is all noble and generous, and as an excuse and beauty that this human disease can receive: it has other foundation among them, that the only jealousy of virtue. They are not in discussion of the conquest of new lands, for they still jouyssent this natural uberté, which provides the unemployed and without trouble, of all things necessary, in such abundance, they have no need of enlarge their boundaries. They are still happy this point not to desire that as much as their natural need to order them: all that is past, is superfluous for them. They usually live entr’appellent those Mesme aage brothers: children, those in dessouz; and old men are fathers to all others. These cy leave to their heirs in common the full possession of property by undivided, without otherwise, that He who will all pure, that nature gives to his creatures, producing the world. If their neighbors pass the mountains for the next attack, and they take the victory over them, acquest the winning, it’s the glory, and the advantage of Estre remained master value and virtue: for otherwise they have only to goods of the vanquished, and are returning to their country, where they have no want of necessary thing; ny fault again this largely to wit, happily enjoying their condition, and be content. Make those much-cy in turn. They ask their prisoners, ransom another confession and recognoissance of Estre defeated: But it does not find a whole century, which ayme better death than relascher, nor by capacity, ny speech, a single point of invincible courage of greatness. There is no void in, which had rather be killed and eaten, that require only do not Estre. They traictent them freely, so that their life is particularly expensive: and commonly maintain menaces of their future death torments they have to suffer there, the apprests that stands to this effect, detranchement of their members, and the feast will be at their despens. All this deed for that purpose alone to pull their mouth some soft word or lowered, or make them want to get fuyr; Gaigner for this advantage to have them espouvantez, and have strength deed to their constancy. As well as to the take is in this alone that is the true victory:

victoria is nulla
Quam quae quoque animo confessos subjugat hostes
.

The very warlike Geldings fighters, not past their peak poursuivoient Also making the enemy at their mercy. Because having snatched this confession, they laissoyent go without offense, without ransom; except for the more to derive speech only when arming forward against them.

Gaignons enough benefits on our enemies, who are borrowing benefits, not ours: It is the quality of a porter, not of virtue, to have arms and legs stiff more: it is a dead body and quality, the provision: it is a stroke of fortune to stumble nostre enemy, and him esblouyr eyes by the light of the sun: it is a tour of art and science, and which can fall in a cowardly person and nothingness, of Estre adequate fencing. The estimate and the price of a man is in the heart and in the will: this is where the true gist honor the valor is firmness, not of legs and arms, but of courage and the soul: it does not consist in the value of horse ours, ny noz weapons, but by ours. He that falls obstinate in his courage, if succid erit, genu Pugnat . Which for some danger from the neighboring death, not relasche any point in its asseurance, watching encores making the foul, his enemy sight of a firm and desdaigneuse he fought, not to us, but of fortune: he is killed, not defeated: the bravest are both more infortunez.

Also are there any triumphant losses in emulation victories. Ny four victories sisters, the most beautiful that the Sun aye onques seen his eyes, Salamis, Plataea, Mycale, Sicily, dared oppose onques all their glory all to the glory of the King Leonidas desconfiture and his family at no Thermopylae.

Who never ran a more glorious desire, and ambitious to win the fight, the captain Ischolas loss? Moreover ingeniously and curiously has asseuré of his salvation, that him of his ruin? He was, committed deffendre certain passage of the Peloponnese against the Arcadians; to what end, being unable at all, seeing the nature of the place, and Inequality of forces: and resolvent is that everything presenteroit enemies, would have of necessity to remain there: On the other hand, feeling unworthy and its own virtue and magnanimity, and not Lacedaemonian, of failing to pay: it print between these two extremities, a party means so: younger and rested his troops, he kept them to the tuition and service their own country, and are sent: and those with which the default estoit least, it delibera of soustenir it not: and their dead enemies make achetter to entry the most expensive, it would be possible to him: as it happened. For Easting another while surrounded on all sides by the Arcadians: after having a great deed butcher, he and his family were put wholes over the sword. Is it a trophy assigned to the veincueurs, which is better deu these veincus? The true value for veincre roolle the Estour, not the salvation, and is the first virtue, to fight not to fight.

To return unto our history, it takes until these prisoners go to all that is done to them, that countdown during those two or three months they are kept, they are holding gaye they urging their masters to hasten to put them in this espreuve they deffient them, insult them, criticize them for their cowardice, and the number of battailles lost against theirs. I ay faicte a song by a prisoner, where there is this traict Let them come boldly trétous, and assemble to to dine with him, because they eat when and as their fathers and their ayeulx, who SERVY of food and food to his body: the muscles, he says, this flesh and these veins, are the vostres, poor fools Estes you: you do not recognoissez that the substance of the members of your ancestors is held still: savor the good, you will find the Goust of vostre own flesh invention, which does not feel barbarism. Those who paint the dying, and that represent the action when you knock them, they paint the prisoner spitting in the face of those who kill, and making them a face. In truth they keep till the last sigh, bravado and deffier voice and countenance. No lie, priced at us, here much wild men or because they must well soyent wisely, or we let the: it is a wonderful distance between their shape and ours.

The men have several wives, and have even more, they are in a better reputation for valor: This is a remarkable beauty in their marriages, as Mesme jealousy our wives have to empescher of us friendship and bienvueillance other women, their have any such to acquire them. Estans more careful to honor their husbands, than anything else, they try and put their solicitude to have as companions they can, especially as it is a testimony of the power of the husband.

The ours will cry miracle: it is not. This is a properly matrimonial virtue: but the highest estage. And in the Bible, Lea, Rachel, Sarah and Jacob’s wives furnished their beautiful maidens to their husbands, and Livia seconded the appetites of Augustus, his interest: and the wife of Roy Deiotarus Stratonique, Presta not only to the use of her husband, a handsome young chambermaid, who ferved but carefully nourished children: and feit espaule in succession to the estats their father.

And so we think that everything points cecy will face a simple and servile obligation to their usance, and the printing of the official body of their former custome without speech and without judgment, and for the soul if stupid, that not being able to take another party, it must allege some traits of their sufficiency. Besides him whom I vien to recite one of their warlike songs, I un’autre ay love, which begins in this sense: « Snake arreste toy, toy snake arreste, that my sister pulls on your boss painting, and how the work of a rich cord, I can give to my love: so be anytime your beauty and preferred arrangement to all other snakes. « 

The first verse is the refrein of the song. Now I trade ay enough with poetry to judge cecy, not only that there is nothing in this barbaric imagination, but it is entirely deed Anacreontic. Their language, moreover, it is a sweet language, and that sound agreeable, withdrawing the Greek endings.

Three of them, how ignorant couttera one day their peace, and their good fortune, the cognizance of below corruptions, and that this trade will be born their ruin, as I presuppose that it is advanced-ja (although miserables to let Piper Estre the desire of newness, and he left the sweetness of their heaven to come see the nostre) were to Roüan, time that fire Roy Charles neufiesme there estoit: Roy spoke to them long time , they were shown nostre way nostre pump, as a beautiful city: after that, someone asked them advis, and wanted them to wit, that they had found it more admirable: they respondirent three things, which I have lost troisiesme, and am very sorry; but I still ay both in memory. They said they trouvoient first strong foreign place, that so many great men portans beard and strong arm, Roy, who were around (it is true-they fpoke like the Swiss of his guard) is to obey to soubmissent a child, and that we rather have someone choisissoit them to order: Secondly (they have a way of their language as they call men, half of each other) they avoyent apperceu that there were among us men full and Soak all kinds of conveniences, and their moitiez estoient beggars at their doors, décharnez of hunger and poverty; and strange as these trouvoient moitiez icy needy, might suffer such injustice, they prinsent other by the throat, or set fire to their homes.

I parlay with one of them a very long time, but I had an interpreter who followed me so bad, and so hinders estoit to receive my fantasies by his stupidity, I do peus draw anything worth. What I demanday him what fruit it recevoit the superiority he had his Parmy (because it estoit a captain and sailors noz Roy nommoient) he told me that estoit, walking the first war : how many men he estoit suivy; he showed me a place in space, to signify that estoit as much as he might in such a space, it could Estre four or five thousand men: If out war all his authoritie estoit expired; he says he remained for him in this, that when he visitoit villages that depended on him, we dressoit trails him through hayes their wood, where he peust spend at ease.

All this is not going too badly, but Quoy? they do not wear breeches.

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