Recent years have seen the resurgence of war between:
- on one side, the defenders of the theory of Darwinian evolution, often from science like Richard Dawkins, who think that evolution is random natural events, without preconceived purpose;
- another, creationists, from religiou cirles, Islamic or evangelists, who believe, on the contrary, that all species have been designed (designer) and created by a higher intelligence.
The election of TRUMP brought the US to the proponents of the second school wishing now that school programs have two theories.
The creationist school
This second school, which we call a creationist, or of intelligent design (intelligent design), takes its model from Genesis, the first chapter of the Bible, which assumes that the earth has about 10 000 years. All species were created ex nihilo: lions, ants, fish, men … There was no evolution; we do not descend from primates, let alone reptiles, amphibians, aquatic species. Fossils have no more than 4000 years and living dinosaurs at that time. They were victims of the flood.
View from France, this theory seems to be a fairy tale. Yet it is very fashionable in the United States (42 %) (but also in the Muslim world Jew).
Why the theory of evolution is true
The author, Jerry COYLE, proposes to defend the first theory: that of Darwin. The earth, in its model, would have 5 billion years. All living species descended from a common ancestor (LUCA : last universal common ancestor). Genetic mutations occurred in each generation because of errors of nature in duplication or natural events which put pressure on the living. The most suitable descendants then had a competitive advantage. They were better able to reproduce. Man (branch mammals) therefore falls to other species and preserve, in its genome, the traces of the past, as shown by the species of tree sky taken from Earth:
Man belongs to :
- the mammals orders which blongs to ;
- reptiles orders ;
- then fish, which belongs to the family of
- vertebrates …
I read to you why the theory of evolution is true Jerry Coyne
So those are our ancestors that are the origin of our evil passions! The devil, in the guise of the baboon is our grandfather. Charles Darwin
Most books on the subject are focused on the biology or the study of fossils. Jerry Coyne’s book brings together all the knowledge on the subject to understand why the theory of Darwin is good!
Jerry Coyne shows that we can find evidence of evolution in nature. The geological strata reconstruct the past of the earth. The deepest are the oldest. The fossils are part of these strata. It is therefore quite easy to register them in chronological tree of evolution. However, they are rare. And sometimes the « missing links » persist. Biologists know well that whales, for example, are former land animals that are returned in the water.
If Darwin was right, we should find traces in the bank of fossils of an animal with the main characteristics of the whale, but living on earth. Jerry Coyne shows that paleontologists have indeed found such fossils of land animals living close to water points, which gradually lost their hind legs to go forward in the aquatic environment. The recent discovery of Pappochelys an old reptile of 240 million years, with characteristics similar to the turtle has allowed scientists to fill a void in the cahîne of evolution and destabilize the creationist universe.
Evidence from fossil organs (or organ remains)
This is the best argument against the fools of the creationist theory of intelligent design. A good example (Coyne cites many others) is our appendix. Here is an organ that serves no purpose. Moreover, it is the cause of appendicitis which, if left untreated, is fatal, during millions of years (before the appearance of medicine). So we had this relic of the past which is useless (you can very well live without) and that caused premature death.
This evidence does not make sense in the context of a theory of intelligent design. In fact, The creature is not perfect. There are many other similar examples in the book of Coyne Appendix is actually a vestige of our vegetarian past. Before that man becomes omnivorous (7 million years), he fed exclusively on plants. Or in vegetarians, appendix is well developed. It is used for digestion by promoting the fermentation of vegetal food. Today, we have developed other systems to properly digest plants and the appendix has become obsolete and even harmful. But we keep this little relic that reflects our past.
Unused muscles of our ears are remnants of our reptilian past : among these, the orientation of the ears is essential to find the origin of danger.
At birth, the testes are located in the abdomen. They come out later because sperm need freshness. For what reason did God not choose directly install them into their permanent positions? Especially since their long fall leads in some hernia that may be painful or provoke death. The reason again is in our past: in fish (which we descend from) the testes are and remain inside. We kept this organization for the development.
We can find in the 14 weeks embryo of Whale, traces of hind legs (C on the picture). At 48 weeks, these traces have disappeared. Here is proof that at one time the whale was a terrestrial animal. It has retained this trace in the development of the embryo. Taken from the excellent website: http://www.rationalisme.org/french/sciences_preuves_3.htm
The man descended from non-human species. We are animals among others. This assertion can not be accepted by believers: Adam was created by God in his image and Eve was fashioned from a rib of Adam (not that he is bored: this speaks volumes about the status of women in the Bible).
Evolution is not perfect
Natural selection Does not yield perfection-only improvements over what cam before. It Produces the fitter not the fittest. Jerry Coyne
Our body for example has characteristics that show that while it is adapted to its environment but has not reached perfection in terms of adaptation. The recurring back pain in humans comes from the fact that we are the heirs of quadrupeds. Our pool is not designed optimally to support bipedalism. The pharynx serves both to circulate the air and food that in some cases (choking) causes the death of the subject. The male urethra is used to convey the urine and semen. Our body can not synthesize vitamin C, which makes it vulnerable in winter. The extreme narrowness of the vagina (due to the transition to bipedalism) in women has caused for millions of years the death of the mother and child during childbirth.
We’re not perfect. This imperfection is not explained in the context of intelligent design.
The species are different but obviously show very similar physical characteristics. A common ancestor is likely.
Proof by embryo
The human embryo closely resembles that of other species, particularly the fish. The eyes are on the sides and it has a tail. Species in fact share common genes. These genes date back to the first living cells.
You can not convince those who will not be convinced. Faith needs no proof. It is based on belief. The debate has therefore never stop.