Briel history oh Thermodynamic

Briel history oh Thermodynamic

The birth of thermodynamic Thermodynamic is born along with the steam engine, in 1824 in Paris, when Sadi Carnot (the uncle of the future french President) published his Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire and own machinery to develop this power .The idea was to improve the steam engine performance. The thermodynamic term did [...]

I read for you Charles Fourier (1772-1837) and Phalansteries

I read for you Charles Fourier (1772-1837) and Phalansteries

The Phalansteries: another way to demonstrate that the utopian ideas of lefts , beautiful from the pen, usually end badly ... Charles Fourier (1772-1837) is a child of the Revolution. he was 17 when Camille Desmoulins launches its "holy Bartholomew" People that led to the storming of the Bastille. It is on this fertile ground [...]

I read to You What is Property? Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1840)

I read to You What is Property? Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1840)

If Fourier was a child of the first revolution (1789), his heir Pierre-Joseph Proudhon was one of the third (1848), a stillborn revolution since it leads to the restoration of Bonapartism in the person of the Emperor Napoleon III. 1789 was certainly successful in abolishing the privileges of nobles and clergy, but had, at the [...]

I read to you the patient of the Sans-souci Joseph KESSEL

Montmartre, 1935. Behind the steamy windows of the Sanssouci, an elegant woman wrapped in a sable coat short in the rain. His red hair soaked by rain falls like a gold fountain elegant shoulders. She disappears into the Parisian night. The next day in the same place, behind the same fogged windows of Sans Souci, [...]

Hitler and Mussolini

Hitler and Mussolini

Hitler and Mussolini It is striking to note the strange similarity between the path of nationalism of the interwar cousins, twins of totalitarianism, pioneers in the art of handling the crowds that were Hitler and Mussolini. Hitler and Mussolini Both began their careers at the extreme left of the political spectrum (German Workers Party (DAP) [...]

The paradox of Achilles and the tortoise

The paradox of Achilles and the tortoise

Zeno of Elea lived in the fifth century BC. It is especially known for his mathematical paradoxes. Little is known about his life. The only sources are from the Parmenides of Plato and the writings of the Greek pre-Socratic to the Roman historian Diogenes Laertius ,. Main article: brief history of mathematics One of the [...]

Brief summary of the history of France

Brief summary of the history of France

Contrary to popular belief, our ancestors were not Gallic, but Celtic (senior men etymologically). They came from central Europe. The territory was then a mosaic of people: Arverni (Auvergne), Helvetii (in Switzerland) Eduens (in the Jura) Parisis (around the Seine) Carnutes (center), Allobroges in Savoie ... Map of the Gallic tribes Brief summary of the [...]

The determinism of Laplace

The determinism of Laplace

When we look at the determinism of Laplace, we are immersed in his biography and, inevitably, we find the figures of the French Revolution. For the mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace was associated with the greatest, Mirabeau (MP Third State author of the famous « We are here by the will of the people and we will leave [...]

I looked for you happiness for the Stoics and the Epicureans

A centuries intervals, both Greek schools of philosophy seem to answer: Epicurus to Stoics: "The wise [...] makes fun of fate, some of which (the Stoics) are the absolute master of things. " Epicurus, extracted from the Letter to Menoeceus. Cicero the Epicureans: "Pleasure (Epicureans) to something odious, infamous" I looked for you happiness the [...]

What is the difference between Hamas and Fatah?

The Hamas and Fatah are fighting since 1987 the legitimacy of the Palestinian leadership. Despite a common goal, the recognition of a Palestinian state, they are unable to get around a table to discuss a strategy. Worse, they are fighting for power, for money too, putting a little more at risk chances to install a [...]

How did Eratosthenes calculate the circumference and radius of the earth ?

How did Eratosthenes calculate the circumference and radius of the earth ?

Egyptians used mathematics for practical purposes: surveying, trading, construction. The Greeks were the first to do mathematics to do mathematics, without practical and immediate application in everyday life. Eratosthenes (3rd century BC) was one of them. How did Eratosthenes calculate the circumference and radius of the earth ? Eratosthenes supposed that the earth was round! [...]

Hitler and Mussolini

Hitler and Mussolini

Hitler and Mussolini It is striking to note the strange similarity between the path of nationalism of cousins between the wars, the brothers of totalitarianism, pioneers in the art of handling the crowds that were Hitler and Mussolini. Hitler and Mussolini Both began their careers at the extreme left of the political spectrum : German [...]

I read for you The Karamazov Brothers by Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky

I read for you The  Karamazov Brothers by Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky

Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky took his final years to offer a philosophical synthesis, it presents, with Brother Karamazov, in the form of an array of Russia of XIX century. Does God exist ? And yes is he necessary for morality? Is the man with a free will allowing him to choose, with full knowledge of causes, [...]

Map Islam expansion(spread)

Map Islam expansion(spread)

This map shows the maximum expansion of Islam under Muhammad, the Umayyads and Abbasids. Muhammad in the seventh century control the Arabian Peninsula. The first four caliphs do out of its natural borders, pushing eastward to Persia and westward into Libya via Egypt. The Umayyads reach Afghanistan and North Africa and Spain. They stopped at [...]

Brief history of trigonometry

Brief history of trigonometry

Trigonometry ... a mystery to most of us. The word comes from the Greek. "Gone" is the angle, as in polygon. The "tri" is the triangle. Metron is the art of measuring. The tri-gono-metry is the art of measuring the angles in the triangle. read also : A brief history of mathematics The history of [...]

I read for you Candide (Voltaire)

I read for you Candide (Voltaire)

Voltaire Candid. A classic, which can be read like an adventure story, very useful when trying to introduce children to literature ... Voltaire, of course, is part of the philosophers of the Enlightenment (as opposed to the dark philosophy of previous centuries, dominated by the Catholic scholastic). He was not an atheist but a deist: [...]

I read for you Why the theory of evolution is true (Jerry Coyne)

I read for you Why the theory of evolution is true (Jerry Coyne)

Recent years have seen the resurgence of war between: on one side, the defenders of the theory of Darwinian evolution, often from science like Richard Dawkins, who think that evolution is random natural events, without preconceived purpose; another, creationists, from religiou cirles, Islamic or evangelists, who believe, on the contrary, that all species have been [...]

We read to you the rules of the sociological method – Emile Durkheim (1858 – 1917)

We read to you the rules of the sociological method – Emile Durkheim (1858 – 1917)

Durkheim Preface to the first edition from 1895The book aims to establish a rational method of examining social facts, to show them reports of cause and effect by overcoming prejudices and scope of psychology.Preface to the second edition 1901The preface of the second edition is intended to clarify certain points particularly to meet the objections [...]

Brief biography of Pierre de Fermat

Brief biography of Pierre de Fermat

Pierre Fermat 1600. We are still under the reign of good King Henry IV. Whoever became Catholic to the throne of the most Christian nations of Europe, France, has just succeeded to extinguish, for a time, the embers of religious wars that bloodied France. The Edict of Nantes is registered in all the courts of [...]

I read for you (long ago) The Spirit of the Laws (Montesquieu)

I read for you (long ago) The Spirit of the Laws (Montesquieu)

"A thing is not just because it is law, but it is law because it is right." Montesquieu. 1748 - The Spirit of the Laws of Montesquieu is published in Geneva without the author's name We are in the France of Louis XV, a France centralized around a monarchy that left long ago the management [...]

I read for you The article « Fanaticism » Voltaire – Portable Philosophical Dictionary (1764)

Voltaire VOLTAIRE , throwing himself in the exercise of philosophical dictionary, seems to meet Encyclopédistes : Are they too shy? Too averse to risk of censorship? Without a doubt. VOLTAIRE wants to go further, beyonds the limits of the tolerable, shake consciences, challenge traditions, enlighten his time still dominated by the Sorbonne (the faculty of [...]

I read for you Germinal (Emile Zola)

Germinal Claude Berri GERMINAL is part of the Rougon-Macquart cycle, inaugurated by Zola in Assommoir. This cycle is an opportunity to paint a picture of the Second Empire (1851-1870) and the Third Republic, its successor since  1871. Why GERMINAL? This is a reference, of course, to the revolutionary calendar, as we are here in full [...]

I read for you Journey to the End of the Night – voyage au bout de la nuit de Louis-Ferdinand Céline

A surprising reading, innovative designs, JOURNEY TO THE END OF THE NIGHT disconcerts the non-informed reader. Either love it or hate it, it's one or the other. I'm in the first category. Journey to the End of the Night Louis-Ferdinand Céline. A few words about the author Louis-Ferdinand Céline (real name Louis-Ferdinand DESTOUCHES; Céline was, [...]