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The Hamas and Fatah are fighting since 1987 the legitimacy of the Palestinian leadership. Despite a common goal, the recognition of a Palestinian state, they are unable to get around a table to discuss a strategy. Worse, they are fighting for power, for money too, putting a little more at risk chances to install a […]

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Deus sive natura.

Spinoza (1632-1677) shatters the dominant theology of the time (and ours), which means that nature has been created for man by a higher being that resembles it (anthropomorphic).

Yet Spinoza is not an atheist. God is cited repeatedly in ethics. But he is merged with nature (Deus sive natura).


God and Nature are equivalent.

Hitler and Mussolini

It is striking to note the strange similarity between the path of nationalism of cousins between the wars, the brothers of totalitarianism, pioneers in the art of handling the crowds that were Hitler and Mussolini.

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Hitler and Mussolini

Both began their careers at the extreme left of the political spectrum :

  • German Workers Party (DAP) for Hitler
  • and Socialist Party for Mussolini (with an anarchist tendency)

to complete their quest for the absolute deadly in the extreme right, through the same tortuous paths, using the weakness of parliamentary democracies in place.

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Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky took his final years to offer a philosophical synthesis, it presents, with Brother Karamazov, in the form of an array of Russia of XIX century. Does God exist ? And yes is he necessary for morality? Is the man with a free will allowing him to choose, with full knowledge of causes, […]

This map shows the maximum expansion of Islam under Muhammad, the Umayyads and Abbasids. Muhammad in the seventh century control the Arabian Peninsula. The first four caliphs do out of its natural borders, pushing eastward to Persia and westward into Libya via Egypt. The Umayyads reach Afghanistan and North Africa and Spain. They stopped at […]

secret agreements Sikes-Picot 1916 Sykes-Picot 1916 – 2017 2017… London and Paris do they reap in Iraq and Syria fruits they have sown … in 1916? In 1916, France and England had their eyes turned elsewhere: toward east, toward Germany of Bismarck and William II (Kaiser) which threatened at any moment to break their lines […]

Trigonometry … a mystery to most of us. The word comes from the Greek. « Gone » is the angle, as in polygon. The « tri » is the triangle. Metron is the art of measuring. The tri-gono-metry is the art of measuring the angles in the triangle. read also : A brief history of mathematics The history of […]

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Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead see scrolls show that the New Testament is plagiarism. We are at the dawn of spring 1947, close to the rocky shores of the Dead Sea. We are at Qumran, not far from Jerusalem, about ten kilometers from Jericho, the city with the impregnable walls that collapsed yet, more than 3000 years ago, the first trumpets of Joshua.

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Candid. A classic, which can be read like an adventure story, very useful when trying to introduce children to literature …

Voltaire, of course, is part of the philosophers of the Enlightenment (as opposed to the dark philosophy of previous centuries, dominated by the Catholic scholastic).

He was not an atheist but a deist: he thought that the world was created by God a watchmaker, which would set the parameters of the universe and would then indented.

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Recent years have seen the resurgence of war between: on one side, the defenders of the theory of Darwinian evolution, often from science like Richard Dawkins, who think that evolution is random natural events, without preconceived purpose; another, creationists, from religiou cirles, Islamic or evangelists, who believe, on the contrary, that all species have been […]


Preface to the first edition from 1895The book aims to establish a rational method of examining social facts, to show them reports of cause and effect by overcoming prejudices and scope of psychology.Preface to the second edition 1901The preface of the second edition is intended to clarify certain points particularly to meet the objections raised in the first issue

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Pierre Fermat

Pierre Fermat

1600. We are still under the reign of good King Henry IV. Whoever became Catholic to the throne of the most Christian nations of Europe, France, has just succeeded to extinguish, for a time, the embers of religious wars that bloodied France.

The Edict of Nantes is registered in all the courts of France and Navarre.

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Montesquieu« A thing is not just because it is law, but it is law because it is right. » Montesquieu.

1748 – The Spirit of the Laws of Montesquieu is published in Geneva without the author’s name

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It is not to men that I speak; it’s you, God of all beings, of all worlds and of all time. Voltaire – Prayer to God. As we shall see, and contrary to what he announces in the preamble, VOLTAIRE talk to men, denouncing, ironically, the different religious practices that have drawn for millennia, men […]

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VOLTAIRE , throwing himself in the exercise of philosophical dictionary, seems to meet Encyclopédistes : Are they too shy? Too averse to risk of censorship? Without a doubt.

VOLTAIRE wants to go further, beyonds the limits of the tolerable, shake consciences, challenge traditions, enlighten his time still dominated by the Sorbonne (the faculty of theology under the old regime), so that flourish and critical thinking, that eventually reign true brotherhood.

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Germinal Claude Berri

GERMINAL is part of the Rougon-Macquart cycle, inaugurated by Zola in Assommoir. This cycle is an opportunity to paint a picture of the Second Empire (1851-1870) and the Third Republic, its successor since  1871.

Why GERMINAL? This is a reference, of course, to the revolutionary calendar, as we are here in full worker drama.

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Louis Ferdinand Céline

A surprising reading, innovative designs, JOURNEY TO THE END OF THE NIGHT disconcerts the non-informed reader. Either love it or hate it, it’s one or the other. I’m in the first category.

Journey to the End of the Night Louis-Ferdinand Céline.

A few words about the author

Louis-Ferdinand Céline (real name Louis-Ferdinand DESTOUCHES; Céline was, apparently, the first name of his grandmother). He was scheduled for a war child born there in 1894. The 1870 defeat (SEDAN) against the Prussians was then in all minds. The French were waiting for revenge. Celine was ready in 1914 to participate in the great slaughter. Wounded, decorated with the Croix de Guerre (war cross), he was reformed in 1915.

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Albert Camus

The Plague, Albert Camus novel, was published in 1947, two years near the end of the war. This is the chronicle of an epidemic that struck in the 40s, the city of Oran, Algeria French yet.

Dead rats picked up by then tens, hundreds, announced worse to come for Dr Bernard RIEUX, narrator and main character of the novel.

The authorities, noting that human corpses soon succeed to the dead rodents, decide to close the city.

Pestilence, when it is dark, is a metaphor of totalitarian regimes in general and in particular of the Nazi regime.

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1984 – Georges ORWELL

I read for you the 1984 George Orwell

Written in 1948 by George Orwell, 1984 denounced the totalitarianism of the twentieth century.

Using the form of the black novel, George Orwell described OCEANIA, an imaginary totalitarian society, which has built and surpassed the tools of oppression invented by his illustrious elders that were Nazism and Communism.

OCEANIA achieved near-perfection in the art of post crowds. Lire la suite

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The Stranger by Albert CAMUS

I read for you The Stanger (Albert Camus – 1947)

The stranger, that one knows only by name (MEURSAULT), is a french Algierian, leading a life of average office worker, boring, in any area of the algerian capital.
He seems to serve his life, a life he has not chosen, a life without relief, without emotion, almost mechanical.

The death of his mother is like a simple disorder: how will he announce his absence to his boss ? is the only question that disturbs him.



In this work clairvoyant, Viscount de Tocqueville takes the wrong way bristled story showing how the 1789 revolution, far from being a failure, is a continuation of the old feudal system.

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Rousseau was a special case in the Enlightenment. He was not a Parisian. He prefered the Geneva countryside (where he originated) than the  worldliness of the city.

Unlike his contemporary philosophers, he believed that technological progress causes an accumulation of wealth that deepen inequalities.
In his letter to d’Alembert 1758, he even spoke of « moral decline ».

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Voltaire wrote this book after the trial of Jean Calas, a Protestant wrongly accused of murdering her son converted to Catholicism, March 9, 1762, in Toulouse.

So this is a work written « reaction » that Voltaire saw as an injustice of his countrymen, who was due to religious intolerance.

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Montaigne was born in 1533 into a noble Catholic family of Gascogne. France then entered the Renaissance and Francis the first reigned from 1515. The Lutheran Reformation (Protestantism) threatened royal authority, based on the Catholic Church: the first Protestant persecution began in 1520. They degenerated into civil war, which reached its peak in 1572, on the occasion of the massacre of the saint Bartholomew.

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In the sadly usual context of the Arab-Israeli conflict, the rocket rain HAMAS batter the skulls of innocent Israeli civilians, in retaliation for Tsahal missiles whose aim is to silence those damned batteries. Lire la suite

kaba.jpgThe Saudi Arabia is the main responsible for the diffusion of the dark side of Islam : Wahhabism. But Arabia is not alone. Westerners, foremost among them the United States, for simplicity, by interest miscalculated, also have their share of responsibility…

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Map of the « expansion of Islam Shiites Iran, the great power Shiite supports the Iraqi government (Shia), but Bashar al-Assad, an Alawite (a branch of Shiism ) and the Houthi rebellion in Yemen. North Lebanon and the southern Syrian rampant Hezbollah militia Shiite who fights alongside the same Assad, against DAESH (Sunnism tends Wahhabi ) […]

To try to see more clearly in the many ramifications of the crooked tree of Islam … HD: tree of Islam   Chronological Tree of Islam We notice that the main trunk planted by Muhammad in the seventh century divides early into two main branches: that of the Shiites , who do not recognize as […]

atomA brief history of time (Edition 1996 ) Stephen HAWKING,

after years of research in mathematics and cosmology, Stephen HAWKING has decided to present the state of knowledge of cosmology and physics. His book became, upon its release in 1988, a best-seller.

Surprising for a work on themes, a priori, reserved for scientific elites.

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In our brief summary of the Old Testament , we recounted the history of mankind since the creation of the universe ( Genesis ) and we went through 4,500 years of history. We met with the people of antiquity, then followed the adventures of one of them, the people chosen by God the Creator: The […]